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 Caligula y Albert Camus et, Heliogabalus y Antonin Artaud

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MessageSujet: Caligula y Albert Camus et, Heliogabalus y Antonin Artaud   Mer 27 Juin à 10:44

Caligula is a play written by Albert Camus, begun in 1938 (the date of the first manuscript 1939) and published for the first time in May 1944 by Éditions Gallimard.[1][2] The play was later the subject of numerous revisions. It was part of what the author called the "Cycle of the Absurd", with the novel The Stranger (1942) and the essay The Myth of Sisyphus (1942).[3] A number of critics have reported the piece to be existentialist; however, Camus always denied belonging to this philosophy.[citation needed] Its plot revolves around the historical figure of Caligula, a Roman Emperor famed for his cruelty and seemingly insane behavior.

The play shows Caligula, Roman Emperor, torn by the death of Drusilla, his sister and lover. In Camus' version of events, Caligula eventually deliberately manipulates his own assassination. (Historically, this event took place January 24, AD 41.)

Here is the theme of the play presented by the author himself (in the U.S. edition of Theater in 1957):

"Caligula, a relatively kind prince so far, realizes on the death of Drusilla, his sister and his mistress, that "men die and they are not happy." Therefore, obsessed by the quest for the Absolute and poisoned by contempt and horror, he tries to exercise, through murder and systematic perversion of all values, a freedom which he discovers in the end is no good. He rejects friendship and love, simple human solidarity, good and evil. He takes the word of those around him, he forces them to logic, he levels all around him by force of his refusal and by the rage of destruction which drives his passion for life.

But if his truth is to rebel against fate, his error is to deny men. One cannot destroy without destroying oneself. This is why Caligula depopulates the world around him and, true to his logic, makes arrangements to arm those who will eventually kill him. Caligula is the story of a superior suicide. It is the story of the most human and the most tragic of errors. Unfaithful to man, loyal to himself, Caligula consents to die for having understood that no one can save himself all alone and that one cannot be free in opposition to other men."
Versions of Caligula

The final version is the four-act version of 1944, first published jointly with The Misunderstanding then published alone in the same year. There is a three-act version of 1941, re-published in 1984, in the compilation Cahiers Albert Camus. The changes between the versions show the effect of World War II on Camus.

Bei, Hu (2010-06-10). "Caligula as a monster of absurdity". Global Times. Retrieved 2018-04-03.
Kaplan, Alice (2016). Looking for The Stranger: Albert Camus and the Life of a Literary Classic. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-2262-4167-8.

Cascetta, Annamaria (2015). Modern European Tragedy: Exploring Crucial Plays. Anthem Press. ISBN 978-1-7830-8424-1.

v t e

Works by Albert Camus

The Stranger The Plague The Fall A Happy Death The First Man

Short stories

Exile and the Kingdom
"The Adulterous Woman" "The Renegade" "The Silent Men" "The Guest" "The Artist at Work" "The Growing Stone"


Caligula The Misunderstanding The State of Siege The Just Assassins The Possessed


The Myth of Sisyphus The Rebel "Reflections on the Guillotine" Resistance, Rebellion, and Death Summer in Algiers


Betwixt and Between Neither Victims nor Executioners Notebooks 1935–1942 Notebooks 1943–1951 Nuptials

Authority control

WorldCat Identities BNF: cb12327937w (data) GND: 4341696-2 SUDOC: 032202989 VIAF: 315087722


Antoine Marie Joseph Artaud, better known as Antonin Artaud (French: [aʁto]; 4 September 1896 – 4 March 1948), was a French dramatist, poet, essayist, actor, and theatre director, widely recognized as one of the major figures of twentieth-century theatre and the European avant-garde.

Thirty years later, French radio finally broadcast the performance of Pour en Finir avec le Jugement de dieu.
Apprenticeship with Charles Dullin

Arguably one of Artaud’s most significant influences in shaping his radical ideas for the theater was Charles Dullin. Dullin, a cohort and collaborator of the celebrated French “teacher-directors” Jacques Copeau, André Antoine, and Firmin Gémier, founded in July 1921 what he referred to as a “laboratory theater” which he named “Théâtre de l'Atelier”, located in Néronville, France. Dullin’s goal when he created this theater, where he trained aspiring actors, was to create the “complete actor”, “to form actors with a general culture, which they so often lack; to inculcate them from the very beginning with solid principles of actors’ techniques: good diction, physical training; to expand their means of expression to include dance and pantomime; in one word, to form the complete actor.”[10]:346

Artaud was taken on as an apprentice by Dullin in 1921, under whom he arduously trained for eighteen months, ten to twelve hours a day, with particular emphasis on mime, gymnastics, improvisation, voice production, and various exercises intended to heighten one’s sensory perception.[11]:119 By making contact with one’s surroundings, the actor was to get in tune with “La Voix du Monde” (the voice of the world), making way for “Voix de Soi-Même” (the voice of oneself), in order to be able to get the actor in tune with his true voice, with which he is to express himself on stage. Perhaps the most evident influence that Dullin had on Artaud’s 1935 stage production of Percy Bysshe Shelley’s The Cenci were his improvisational exercises related to the five human senses, intended by Dullin as preparation, not for the stage. In his seminars, Dullin strongly emphasized that his actors must “see before describing, hear before answering...and feel before trying to express himself”, often using bells, the sound of footsteps, and masks as preparation.[10]:347

The actors were encouraged to forget the weight of their bodies, while using them more than their faces to express themselves, often wearing a full or half mask.[10]:347 It was this internalization process that interested Artaud most, often focusing on man’s struggle against elemental forces, a significant theme in his Theatre of Cruelty and the 1935 staging of The Cenci. Dullin recorded an exercise he gave to Artaud in which he was to mime his struggle against the currents of a river.[11]:119 Artaud was quoted as saying of Dullin, “Hearing Dullin teach I feel that I’m rediscovering ancient secrets and a whole forgotten mystique of production”.[10]:351

In Artaud’s Theatre of Cruelty, he warned against the dangers of psychology in theater and strove to create a theater in which the mise-en-scène, everything present in the staging of a production, could be understood as a codified stage language, with minimal emphasis on spoken language.[12] He voiced his concerns of the dangers relating to “psychological equilibrium” present in Dullin’s vocal improvisation exercises, “These exercises of improvisation reveal and sharpen true personality. Intonation is found within oneself and pushed out with the burning power of feeling, not achieved through imitation”.[10]:349–350 In his 1935 production of The Cenci, it was these raw elemental forces and his wishes for the audience to feel the character’s anguish that Artaud focused on.

The drama written by Percy Shelley contained themes of abuse, incest, violence, murder and betrayal. In Artaud’s stage directions, he described the opening scene as “suggestive of extreme atmospheric turbulence, with wind-blown drapes, waves of suddenly amplified sound, and crowds of figures engaged in ‘furious orgy’”, accompanied by “a chorus of church bells”, as well as the presence of numerous large mannequins.[11]:120 In this scene, which is often referred to as “the banquet scene”, Dullin’s influence on Artaud is very clear, as both the sounds of bells and the sounds of amplified footsteps were present, along with the strongly emphasized theme of elemental forces. While Shelley’s version of The Cenci conveyed the motivations and anguish of the Cenci’s daughter Beatrice with her father through monologues, Artaud was much more concerned with conveying the menacing nature of the Cenci’s presence and the reverberations of their incest relationship though physical discordance, as if an invisible “force-field” surrounded them.[11]:123

While Artaud implemented much of what he learned from his apprenticeship with Charles Dullin, the two butted heads towards the end of Artaud’s apprenticeship, citing differences in their goals for the theater. Lugné Poe, influential French theater director in the symbolist movement, described Artaud as “a painter lost in the midst of actors”.[10]:350 Artaud’s strong interest in oriental theater, specifically Balinese and Chinese, was in part shared by his mentor Dullin, but Dullin, unlike Artaud, did not think Western theater should be adopting oriental language and style. He was quoted as saying of Artaud’s influences from oriental theater, “To want to impose on our Western theater rules of a theatre of a long tradition which has its own symbolic language would be a great mistake.”[10]:351 Artaud’s wishes that Western theatre be much more resembling of Oriental theatre was a major source of conflict between the two French actors/directors. Artaud’s implementation of Dullin’s sensory awareness exercises into the stage production were clearly observable in The Cenci, Jane Goodall writes of the performance,

The predominance of action over reflection accelerates the development of events...the monologues...are cut in favor of sudden, jarring that a spasmodic effect is created. Extreme fluctuations in pace, pitch, and tone heighten sensory awareness intensify...the here and now of performance.
— Jane Goodall[11]:119

Artaud’s implementation of Dullins preparation techniques, not intended for the stage, in combination with the physical and symbolic language specific to oriental theater were Artaud’s strongest influences in both the shaping of The Theater of Cruelty and his staging of The Cenci.
Theatre of Cruelty

Encyclopædia Britannica describe his Theatre of Cruelty as "a primitive ceremonial experience intended to liberate the human subconscious and reveal man to himself", and go on to say that Manifeste du théâtre de la cruauté (1932; Manifesto of the Theatre of Cruelty) and Le Théâtre et son double (1938; The Theatre and Its Double) both called for "communion between actor and audience in a magic exorcism; gestures, sounds, unusual scenery, and lighting combine to form a language, superior to words, that can be used to subvert thought and logic and to shock the spectator into seeing the baseness of his world."[2]

In his book The Theatre and Its Double, which contained the first and second manifesto for a "Theatre of Cruelty", Artaud expressed his admiration for Eastern forms of theatre, particularly the Balinese. He admired Eastern theatre because of the codified, highly ritualized and precise physicality of Balinese dance performance, and advocated what he called a "Theatre of Cruelty". At one point, he stated that by cruelty he meant not exclusively sadism or causing pain, but just as often a violent, physical determination to shatter the false reality. He believed that text had been a tyrant over meaning, and advocated, instead, for a theatre made up of a unique language, halfway between thought and gesture. Artaud described the spiritual in physical terms, and believed that all theatre is physical expression in space.

The Theatre of Cruelty has been created in order to restore to the theatre a passionate and convulsive conception of life, and it is in this sense of violent rigour and extreme condensation of scenic elements that the cruelty on which it is based must be understood. This cruelty, which will be bloody when necessary but not systematically so, can thus be identified with a kind of severe moral purity which is not afraid to pay life the price it must be paid.
– Antonin Artaud, The Theatre of Cruelty, in The Theory of the Modern Stage (ed. Eric Bentley), Penguin, 1968, p.66

Evidently, Artaud's various uses of the term cruelty must be examined to fully understand his ideas. Lee Jamieson has identified four ways in which Artaud used the term cruelty. First, it is employed metaphorically to describe the essence of human existence.

[Nietzsche's] definition of cruelty informs Artaud's own, declaring that all art embodies and intensifies the underlying brutalities of life to recreate the thrill of experience ... Although Artaud did not formally cite Nietzsche, [their writing] contains a familiar persuasive authority, a similar exuberant phraseology, and motifs in extremis ...

– Lee Jamieson, Antonin Artaud: From Theory to Practice, Greenwich Exchange, 2007, p.21-22

Artaud's second use of the term (according to Jamieson), is as a form of discipline. Although Artaud wanted to "reject form and incite chaos" (Jamieson, p. 22), he also promoted strict discipline and rigor in his performance techniques. A third use of the term was ‘cruelty as theatrical presentation’. The Theatre of Cruelty aimed to hurl the spectator into the centre of the action, forcing them to engage with the performance on an instinctive level. For Artaud, this was a cruel, yet necessary act upon the spectator, designed to shock them out of their complacency:

Artaud sought to remove aesthetic distance, bringing the audience into direct contact with the dangers of life. By turning theatre into a place where the spectator is exposed rather than protected, Artaud was committing an act of cruelty upon them.

– Lee Jamieson, Antonin Artaud: From Theory to Practice, Greenwich Exchange, 2007, p.23

Artaud wanted to put the audience in the middle of the 'spectacle' (his term for the play), so they would be 'engulfed and physically affected by it'. He referred to this layout as being like a 'vortex' – a constantly shifting shape – 'to be trapped and powerless'. He also placed a great emphasis on sound rather than words or dialogue, by incorporating loud cries, screams, eerie sounds, or noises causing the audience to become uncomfortable. Words were an insufficient medium of expression.

Finally, Artaud used the term to describe his philosophical views, which will be outlined in the following section. In 1989 Norwegian actor-turned-director Lars Øyno made the performance of "Elagabal" with his colleagues at Trondelag Teatre in Trondheim, Norway. That led to the foundation of Grusomhetens Teater in Oslo in 1992. Using Artaud's manifestos as sources for a contemporary practice on stage, he made 23 plays in the theater of cruelty form. Øyno traveled in countries like India, Russia, Germany, Poland, UK, US, etc. A resurrection of the Theater of Cruelty attracted drama festivals in different countries. Yet Grusomhetens Teater is the one and only troupe in the world dedicated completely to Artaud's principles of theater. [13]

To him, reality appeared to be a consensus, the same consensus the audience accepts when they enter a theatre to see a play and, for a time, pretend that what they are seeing is real.

Artaud saw suffering as essential to existence and thus rejected all utopias as inevitable dystopia. He denounced the degradation of civilization, yearned for cosmic purification, and called for an ecstatic loss of the self. Hence Jane Goodall considers Artaud to be a modern Gnostic while Ulli Seegers stresses the Hermetic elements in his works.

A very important study on the Artaud work comes from Jacques Derrida. According to the philosopher, as theatrical writer and actor, Artaud is the embodiment of both an aggressive and repairing gesture, which strikes, sounds out, is harsh in a dramatic way and with critical determination as well. Identifying life as art, he was critically focused on the western cultural social drama, to point out and deny the double-dealing on which the western theatrical tradition is based; he worked with the whirlpool of feelings and lunatic expressions, being subjugated to a counter-force which came from the act of gesture.[14][15]

Artaud was heavily influenced by seeing a Colonial Exposition of Balinese Theatre in Marseille. He read eclectically, inspired by authors and artists such as Seneca, Shakespeare, Poe, Lautréamont, Alfred Jarry, and André Masson.

Artaud has been cited as a profoundly influential figure in the history of theater, avant-garde art, literature, and other disciplines.[2] His work proved to be a significant influence on the Theater of the Absurd, particularly the works of Jean Genet and Samuel Beckett, and helped inspire a movement away from the dominant role of language and rationalism in contemporary theater.[2] Artaud also had a significant influence on the philosophers Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, who borrowed Artaud's phrase "the body without organs" to describe their conception of the virtual dimension of the body and, ultimately, the basic substratum of reality in their Capitalism and Schizophrenia.[16] Poet Allen Ginsberg claimed his introduction to Artaud, specifically "To Have Done with the Judgement of god", by Carl Solomon had a tremendous influence on his most famous poem "Howl".[17]

Theatrical practitioner Peter Brook took inspiration from Artaud's "Theatre of Cruelty" in a series of workshops that led up to his Royal Shakespeare Company production of Marat/Sade in 1964, which was performed in New York and Paris as well as London. The Living Theatre was also heavily influenced by Artaud, as was much English-language experimental theatre and performance art; Karen Finley, Spalding Gray, Liz LeCompte, Richard Foreman, Charles Marowitz, Sam Shepard, Joseph Chaikin, and more all named Artaud as one of their influences.[8]:6–25 In the winter of 1968, Williams College offered a dedicated intersession class in Artaudian theater, resulting in a week-long "Festival of Cruelty," under the direction of Keith Fowler. The Festival included productions of The Jet of Blood, All Writing is Pig Shit, and several original ritualized performances, one based on the Texas Tower killings and another created as an ensemble catharsis called The Resurrection of Pig Man.[18]

Charles Marowitz's play Artaud at Rodez is about the relationship between Artaud and Dr. Ferdière during Artaud's confinement at the psychiatric hospital in Rodez; the play was first performed in 1976 at the Teatro a Trastavere in Rome.[19] The writer and actor Tim Dalgleish wrote and produced the play ‘The Life and Theatre of Antonin Artaud’ (originally called ‘Pigshit’) for the English physical theatre company Bare Bones in 1999. The play told Artaud’s story from his early years of aspiration when he wished to be part to the establishment, through to his final years as a suffering, iconoclastic outsider.In Canada, playwright Gary Botting created a series of Artaudian "happenings" from The Aeolian Stringer to Zen Rock Festival, and produced a dozen plays with an Artaudian theme, including Prometheus Re-Bound.[20] The Latin American dramatic novel Yo-Yo Boing! by Giannina Braschi includes a debate between artists and poets concerning the merits of Artaud's "multiple talents" in comparison to the singular talents of other French writers.[21] The band Bauhaus included a song about the playwright, called "Antonin Artaud", on their album Burning from the Inside.[22] Influential Argentine hard rock band Pescado Rabioso recorded an album titled Artaud. Their leader Luis Alberto Spinetta wrote the lyrics partly basing them on Artaud's writings.[23] Composer John Zorn has written many works inspired by and dedicated to Artaud, including seven CDs: "Astronome", "Moonchild: Songs Without Words", "Six Litanies for Heliogabalus", "The Crucible", "Ipsissimus", "Templars: In Sacred Blood" and "The Last Judgment", a monodrama for voice and orchestra inspired by Artaud's late drawings "La Machine de l'être" (2000), "Le Momo" (1999) for violin and piano, and "Suppots et Suppliciations" (2012) for full orchestra. Filmmaker E. Elias Merhige, during an interview by writer Scott Nicolay, cited the writings of Artaud as a key influence for the experimental film Begotten.[24]

Youth film company ACT 2 CAM work is inspired by the writings of Artaud. Their 2012 feature film is entitled Beggars' Teeth, after the Artaud quotation "All true language is incomprehensible, like the chatter of Beggars' Teeth".
Selected filmography

Graziella (1926)
The Passion of Joan of Arc (1928)
Verdun: Visions of History (1928)
La Femme d'une nuit (1931)
Les Croix de bois (1932)
Lucrezia Borgia (1935)
Koenigsmark (1935)


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MessageSujet: Re: Caligula y Albert Camus et, Heliogabalus y Antonin Artaud   Mer 27 Juin à 10:44

2 h il y a 2 heures

The "Cycle of the Absurd, with the novel The Stranger
and the essay The Myth of Sisyphus.
A.Camus: Caligula...
Caligula is a play written by Albert Camus, the date
of the first manuscript 1939 and published
for the first time by Éditions Gallimard.


2 h il y a 2 heures
En réponse à @GillesBouleau @MontdeMarsan_ et
Le caractère des Voyager... Que se soit au niveau de l'infiniment grand et petit,
la mesure prends l'ampleur de la distance.
Les progrès de communications et de transports se sont développés
dans une mesure remarquable mais qui demeure dans un domaine
du pittoresque.


2 h il y a 2 heures



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MessageSujet: Re: Caligula y Albert Camus et, Heliogabalus y Antonin Artaud   Mer 27 Juin à 10:45

Suzanne Olivier Suzette, dite Dominique Lebon, née le 25 septembre 1922 à Clermont-Ferrand, est une militante de la Résistance française.

Famille parisienne repliée à Lyon, les Moret hébergent des clandestins. Parmi eux, Daniel Cordier. Leur fille Suzanne travaille au secrétariat de la délégation de Jean Moulin en zone Sud.

Fin mars 1943, Suzanne Olivier est envoyée à Paris, dans l'équipe désignée pour implanter en zone Nord la délégation : Laure Diebold, Louis Rapp, Daniel Cordier, Hugues Limonti, Jean-Louis Théobald, Georges Archimbaud.

Tous les jours, Olivier, qui habite l'appartement de ses parents, fait le trajet Paris-Lyon. Joseph Van Dievort Léopold fait le trajet inverse.

Le 9 juin 1943, Charles Delestraint est arrêté au métro Muette, par des agents ennemis. Trois-quarts d'heure plus tard, c'est le tour de Joseph Gastaldo et de Jean-Louis Théobald, non loin du métro Pompe.

Le 11 juin 1943, Suzanne Olivier est arrêtée par le SD à la sortie du métro Villiers.

Le 24 septembre 1943, Archimbaud, Rapp et Jacqueline d'Alincourt sont arrêtés à Paris en même temps que Laurent Girard monté de Lyon.

Le 19 avril 1944, Olivier est déportée en Allemagne, d'abord à la prison de Lauban en Basse-Silésie, puis au camp de Ravensbruck, dont elle revient à la fin de la guerre.

Alias Caracalla, au cœur de la résistance (téléfilm), réalisé par Alain Tasma en 2013, France 3, joué par Lou de Laâge.

Jean-Louis Théobald, Avoir vingt ans avec Jean-Moulin, de Fresnes à Cassino, éd Cêtre, 2005.
Daniel Cordier, Alias Caracalla, Gallimard, 2009.
Gérard Chauvy, Histoire secrète de l'Occupation, Payot, 1991.
Pierre Péan, Vies et Morts de Jean Moulin, Fayard, 1998.


Le poète, célébrant le sentiment, s’exclamait : « Ah ! Frappe-toi le cœur, c’est là qu’est le génie. » (Alfred de Musset) Mais quel est le point de vue du philosophe à propos de la valeur du sentiment...

1. Description d'un sentiment

« Le sentiment est un thème affectif fixé sur un objet auquel il confère une couleur. » (Burloud)

La grâce n'est que la perception d'une aisance. Elle se manifeste par des lignes courbes, encore faut-il que ces lignes ne se ferment pas comme le cercle ou l'ellipse. Aussi est-elle toute entière dans le mouvement qui se poursuit. En elle, l'avenir se préfigure dans le présent. Cela explique que la grâce soit liée au rythme et à l'harmonie. L'un nous donne dans le temps ce que l'autre nous accorde dans l'espace. Et la grâce, c'est l'espace et le temps vécus dans une attente qui n'est pas décevante. Le sentiment du gracieux, c'est la valeur que nous conférons à une figure, à une démarche, à un ensemble, etc. avec lesquels nous sympathisons. Aussi le sentiment est-il une connivence avec les êtres et les choses.

2. Différences entre l'émotion et le sentiment

Les émotions sont déséquilibrantes par nature ; elles provoquent un déséquilibre. Comme le remarque Pradines, ce que nous appelons émotions n'est jamais qu'une espèce de crise de quelque sentiment. Par exemple, une émotion de joie n'est que la forme explosive d'un sentiment de joie. Autrement dit, la différence entre sentiment et émotion consisterait dans le retentissement affectif, aigu ou léger, que provoque un événement. Ainsi la mort d'un être cher entraîne, selon le cas, une émotion douloureuse ou un sentiment de tristesse.

Pourtant, n'y a-t-il qu'une différence de degré ? N'est-on pas plutôt en présence de deux manières différentes d'appréhender le monde ?

On observe, d'abord, que l'émotion est passagère alors que le sentiment est durable. Si la colère est momentanée, la haine ne s'éteint souvent qu'avec la vie. Par ailleurs, l'émotion engendre un trouble qui rend le sujet affectivement surmené quand le sentiment facilite et justifie sa conduite : « Il est le régulateur de l'âme », selon Pierre Janet.

De plus, l'intensité de l'émotion qui se manifeste par des modifications organiques est radicalement distincte de la profondeur du sentiment qui ne modifie pas les rythmes vitaux.

Enfin, on constate que les rapports entre le sentiment et l’émotion ne sont pas toujours linéaires : le sentiment n’accompagne pas toujours l’émotion, par exemple lorsque l’on éprouve le sentiment – in-émotif – de l’ennui qui dépouille les êtres et les choses de toute valeur. L’ennui est un sentiment qui uniformise tout et rend le sujet indifférent. Le comportement de celui qui s’ennuie se caractérise, en effet, par l’étirement et le bâillement qui sont deux signes avant-coureurs du sommeil. Il faut, toutefois, noter que ces deux manifestations corporelles s’opposent au sommeil en ce sens qu’elles facilitent la circulation sanguine dans le cerveau et sont donc propices à maintenir le sujet en état d’éveil. On peut ajouter que l’indifférence apparente masque le besoin de parader : celui qui s’ennuie traîne la semelle ou pose un regard languissant sur toute chose. Bref, il est difficile d’apprécier l’authenticité de ce sentiment dans la mesure où l’on ne sait quelle est la part de vérité et de comédie. Lorsque Chateaubriand confie « Je bâille ma vie. », l’on est en droit de se demander s’il fait référence au seul thème biblique de L’Ecclésiaste (« Tout est vanité /J’ai vu tout ce qui se fait sous le soleil ; et voici tout est vanité et poursuite de vent. » / « Vanitas vanitatum, omnia vanitas/ Vanité des vanités et tout est vanité ») ou s’il ne se fonde pas sur la parade romantique exaltant le sentiment que l’on a manqué pour toujours la seule chose que l’on désirât vraiment.

3. Les caractères généraux des sentiments

Entre la pensée qui prévoit et la passion qui nous lie au passé, le sentiment nous rattache à la réalité présente. Ainsi, je ressens l'amertume du monde lorsque mon amour-propre est blessé ou, de même, j'éprouve la monotonie du monde quand les éléments qui le composent me deviennent plus ou moins indifférents.

Le premier caractère du sentiment est donc d'être intentionnel. L 'amour ou la haine vise une réalité aimable ou détestable ; mais, simultanément, elles désignent la façon dont le sujet est affecté. Le sentiment est donc, à la fois, intention et affection.

En second lieu, on observe que le caractère intentionnel du sentiment interdit toute passivité puisque l'on entretient et développe, par exemple, l'amour ou la haine par des attentions et des conduites répétées. Au début, un sentiment est précaire et instable car lié à des tendances qui n'ont pas d'objet précis. Il devient durable lorsque la tendance a élu un objet.

On constate, enfin, que le sentiment est une réaction à une situation donnée et il tend à régler notre conduite en conformité avec cette situation. Il aide donc à nous intégrer à une situation vécue. Ainsi le sentiment de la nature nous fait-il éprouver la mélancolie des feuilles mortes, la sérénité des soirs d'été ou encore le mystère des profondes forêts.

4. La valeur des sentiments

Le sentiment est lié à la fonction du réel. Un objet a d'autant plus d'importance qu'il provoque un retentissement au niveau de l'affectivité. En effet, ce qui nous est indifférent finit, à la limite, par ne plus exister. En revanche, existe pour nous ce qui éveille et stimule notre activité et, surtout, notre affectivité. L'objet qui a une connexion intime avec notre vie ne fait pas de doute pour nous. Autrement dit, tout sentiment est sentiment du réel. Si nous pouvions concevoir une intelligence sans affectivité, cette intelligence serait la fonction du possible et non du réel.

Il convient toutefois de remarquer que la raison par elle-même ne peut donner de la valeur aux choses. Aussi faut-il le sentiment pour sauver l’esprit de la sécheresse. Si les opérations intellectuelles sont étrangères au sentiment, elles sont gratuites – le sujet ne se sent pas impliqué comme c’est le cas dans un raisonnement formel. En fait, c’est le sentiment qui permet de dire que la vie vaut la peine d’être vécue. Comme le précise Jean-Jacques Rousseau : « Le sentiment de l’existence dépouillé de toute autre affection est par lui-même un sentiment précieux de contentement et de paix, qui suffirait seul à rendre cette existence chère et douce à qui aurait écarté de soi toutes les impressions sensuelles et terrestres qui viennent sans cesse nous en distraire et en troubler ici-bas la douceur. » L’intelligence, à l’inverse, est neutre par elle-même ; elle ne s’enthousiasme pas. Ce sont les sentiments qui font l’enthousiaste comme ce sont les passions qui font les fanatiques. La force d’une religion, d’une politique, d’une révolution n’est pas tant dans la raison que dans l’affectivité. Le prêtre, l’orateur ou le tribun s’adressent au cœur mais rarement aux esprits. Le Sacré Coeur, la devise républicaine « Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité », le drapeau rouge ou la fleur de lys sont des signes affectifs et non intellectuels. Autrement dit, le sentiment donne du prix à une manière d’être. On peut, dès lors, dire qu’il confère de la valeur comme la représentation détecte le vrai.

Par ailleurs, le sentiment permet la fidélité. Un sentiment tend, en effet, à devenir durable et donne ainsi une certaine consistance à l’affectivité. Le sentiment fixe, en quelque sorte, le sujet à un objet et lui permet d’échapper au flux continuel de ses affections qui passent et se modifient. La fidélité, qui est l’essence du sentiment altruiste, sauve souvent un choix médiocre pour en faire une œuvre d’art comme cela peut se trouver dans le sentiment amoureux d’une liaison durable. Aussi le sentiment est-il premier sinon en droit, du moins en fait. Il donne l’énergie à une action intellectuelle ou manuelle. Comme le remarque La Rochefoucauld : « On ne souhaite jamais ardemment ce qu’on ne souhaite que par raison. »


La Chevêchette d'Europe (Glaucidium passerinum), anciennement Chouette chevêchette, est la plus petite espèce des strigidés européens. Sa taille est d'environ 16 cm de longueur. Cet oiseau est en partie diurne et consomme de petits oiseaux qu'il chasse au vol. Il vit le plus souvent dans les forêts de conifères surtout d'épicéas des régions montagneuses. Son aire de répartition est plutôt continentale et nord-européenne.

En réponse à @Senat @senateursLaREM

Entre La colère momentanée, la haine ne s'éteint souvent qu'avec la vie ainsi la pensée prévoit et la passion nous lie au passé, le sentiment nous rattache à la réalité présente:
La grâce est la perception d'une aisance, l'émotion est passagère et le sentiment est durable.

chouette chevêchette et son chant...
Jeune chevêchette qui appelle ses parents...
Le sentiment est lié à la fonction du réel. Un objet a d'autant plus d'importance qu'il provoque un retentissement au niveau de l'affectivité.

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