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 What Is Property ? AND Le conventionnement sélectif.

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MessageSujet: What Is Property ? AND Le conventionnement sélectif.   Mer 18 Oct à 10:40

What Is Property?: or, An Inquiry into the Principle of Right and of Government (French: Qu'est-ce que la propriété ? ou Recherche sur le principe du Droit et du Gouvernement) is a work of nonfiction on the concept of property and its relation to anarchist philosophy by the French anarchist and mutualist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, first published in 1840. In the book, Proudhon most famously declared that "property is theft".


Proudhon believed that the common conception of property conflated two distinct components which, once identified, demonstrated the difference between property used to further tyranny and property used to protect liberty. He argued that the result of an individual's labor which is currently occupied or used is a legitimate form of property. Thus, he opposed unused land being regarded as property, believing that land can only be rightfully possessed by use or occupation (which he called "possession"). As an extension of his belief that legitimate property (possession) was the result of labor and occupation, he argued against such institutions as interest on loans and rent.

   The proprietor, the robber, the hero, the sovereign—for all these titles are synonymous—imposes his will as law, and suffers neither contradiction nor control; that is, he pretends to be the legislative and the executive power at once … [and so] property engenders despotism … That is so clearly the essence of property that, to be convinced of it, one need but remember what it is, and observe what happens around him. Property is the right to use and abuse … if goods are property, why should not the proprietors be kings, and despotic kings—kings in proportion to their facultes bonitaires? And if each proprietor is sovereign lord within the sphere of his property, absolute king throughout his own domain, how could a government of proprietors be any thing but chaos and confusion?
   — Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, What is Property?

Proudhon contrasted the supposed right of property with the rights (which he considered valid) of liberty, equality, and security, saying: "The liberty and security of the rich do not suffer from the liberty and security of the poor; far from that, they mutually strengthen and sustain each other. The rich man’s right of property, on the contrary, has to be continually defended against the poor man’s desire for property." He further argued that the right of property contradicted these other rights: "Then if we are associated for the sake of liberty, equality, and security, we are not associated for the sake of property; then if property is a natural right, this natural right is not social, but anti-social. Property and society are utterly irreconcilable institutions."

Though Proudhon rejects the right of property per se, he also argues that the state of possession as it is (or was) could not be justified even by supposing this right. Here he feigns to bring a legal claim against society, in a style mocking legal rhetoric:

   In writing this memoir against property, I bring against universal society an action petitoire [a legal claim to title]: I prove that those who do not possess to-day are proprietors by the same title as those who do possess; but, instead of inferring therefrom that property should be shared by all, I demand, in the name of general security, its entire abolition. If I fail to win my case, there is nothing left for us (the proletarian class and myself) but to cut our throats: we can ask nothing more from the justice of nations; for, as the code of procedure (art 26) tells us in its energetic style, the plaintiff who has been non-suited in an action petitoire, is debarred thereby from bringing an action possessoire. If, on the contrary, I gain the case, we must then commence an action possessoire, [a legal repossession] that we may be reinstated in the enjoyment of the wealth of which we are deprived by property. I hope that we shall not be forced to that extremity; but these two actions cannot be prosecuted at once, such a course being prohibited by the same code of procedure.
   — Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, What is Property? (emphasis added)

Proudhon claims that his treatise "shall prove beyond a doubt that property, to be just and possible, must necessarily have equality for its condition." He used the term mutuellisme (mutualism) to describe his vision of an economy in which individuals and democratic workers associations could trade their produce on the market under the constraint of equality.

Some contemporary anarchists use the terms personal property (or possessive property) and private property to signify the distinctions Proudhon put forth in regard to ownership of the produce of labor and ownership of land. In this sense, private property would refer to claimed ownership of unused land or goods, and personal property would refer to produce of labor currently in use. This differentiation is an important component in anarchist critique of capitalism.
See also

   flagAnarchism portal

   Bundle of rights
   Libertarian socialism
   Property law

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External links
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
What Is Property?

The text to What Is Property? An Inquiry into the Principle of Right and of Government can be found in various places:

   What is Property? at Project Gutenberg
   What Is Property? at
   Electronic Text Center at the University of Virginia Library


   v t e

By owner

       Common land Communal land Community Cooperative Private Public State
       Crown property Crown land

By nature

   Croft Intangible Intellectual
       indigenous Personal Tangible
       immovable real

Common resources

   Common-pool resource Digital Global Information Knowledge


   Bundle of rights Commodity
       fictitious commodities Common good (economics) Excludability First possession
       appropriation homestead principle Free rider problem Game theory Georgism Gift economy Labor theory of property Law of rent
       rent-seeking Legal plunder Natural rights Ownership
       common customary self state Property rights
       primogeniture usufruct women's Right to property Rivalry Tragedy of the commons


   Acequia (watercourse) Ejido (agrarian land) Forest types Inheritance Land tenure Property law
       alienation easement restraint on alienation real estate title


   Air Fishing Forest-dwelling (India) Freedom to roam Grazing
       pannage Hunting Land
       aboriginal indigenous squatting Littoral Mineral
       Bergregal Right of way Water
       prior-appropriation riparian


   Bioprospecting Collectivization Eminent domain Enclosure Eviction Expropriation Farhud Forced migration
       population transfer Illegal fishing Illegal logging Land reform Legal plunder Piracy Poaching Primitive accumulation Privatization Regulatory taking Slavery
       bride-buying human trafficking wage wife selling Tax
       inheritance poll progressive property Theft

(key work)

   Frédéric Bastiat Ronald Coase Henry George Garrett Hardin David Harvey John Locke
       Two Treatises of Government Karl Marx Marcel Mauss
       The Gift John Stuart Mill Elinor Ostrom Karl Polanyi
       The Great Transformation Pierre-Joseph Proudhon
       What Is Property? David Ricardo Murray N. Rothbard
       The Ethics of Liberty Jean-Jacques Rousseau
       The Social Contract Adam Smith
       The Wealth of Nations

   Category Categories: Property Property law
       by country

Authority control

   WorldCat Identities VIAF: 6847147270386135700008 BNE: XX2749202


Winning ideas on offer

Aude de Clercq, Secretary to ESA Patents Group

ESA currently has about 150 inventions to its name, protected by some 450 patents
across different countries – with 300 patents granted and 150 patent applications
still under examination. We file patents to protect our programmes
and European industry, to give them the opportunity to exploit
these innovations freely, without any potential blocking by competitors.

The ESA portfolio is usable free of charge for space purposes
by industry within ESA Member States, as a way to help companies boost
their competitiveness. Or else they can enable cross-licensing,
where different companies cooperate by exchanging intellectual property.

Many inventions results from ESA space and R&D programmes,
but contracts out this work to European industry. When they devise
the resulting inventions then the contracting companies get
the resulting intellectual property rights. Therefore most
of the IP resulting from ESA’s activities is not owned by ESA.

Other entities, by contrast, take a different approach:
to compare to the French CEA national R&D organisation,
they have around 4000 patent families. But even so, ESA engineers
play an active role in their projects, applying their knowledge
and expertise so that they often end up in participating
in the invention process – to an extent that really shows
the value of our people. In such cases ESA is the owner
of the invention.

ESA Industry and Intellectual Property Rights
Access the video

ESA’s Patents Group, managed through
the Agency’s Technology Transfer and Business Incubation Office,
aims to encourage industry to make use of these assets.
We have an online catalogue to help promote them,
and work closely with TTP’s network of technology transfer brokers,
focused on finding terrestrial uses for space technologies.

As examples of ESA patents that industry have adopted,
we have the DVB-S2 standard for the transmission
and reception of broadcasting data, the timing function devised
by ESA astronaut Jean-François Clervoy and integrated
into the Omega Speedmaster Skywalker X-33 watch
and the mm-wave scanner for airport body scans.
Speedmaster Skywalker X-33

ESA’s Patents Group meets up four to five times a year, typically
to discuss five or six new inventions each time, meeting up with
new inventors and consulting with ESA technology experts
as peer reviewers on updating the portfolio accordingly.
Or maybe there are some inventions in there that
we can abandon our patents on, for instance if they’ve been superseded
by other approaches or no picked up by industry.

My own academic background was in law, and then I wanted
to have experience in an international organisation, and
my law professor recommended I working as a stagiaire at ESA.
That marked my first involvement with ESA, looking into legal aspects
of the Agency’s intellectual property rights.

I then got hired by a start-up called Histar, harnessing satellite data
to try and develop an early warning system for malaria,
which was supported here in the Noordwijk incubator.
It’s quite a common approach now, but this was more than
ten years ago. Once that project was finished I was looking
for a job, and got hired by the the Technology Transfer and Business
Incubation Office based on my legal background.

This work involved helping to establish the national business incubation
centres, supporting start-ups, following the network of brokers throughout
our member states, reporting to our delegates and tackling questions
related to intellectual property.
ESA inventors awarded

That led in turn to increasing involvement with the Patents Group,
we got more involved on the commercialisation side, and promoting
the patents as available. The Programme took over management
of the Patents Group in 2014 and I became in charge of the Secretariat
for the ESA Patents Group.

Our job is to make sure as many people as possible know
that what we have is available for them to use. A lot of times
the inventors themselves make the best ambassadors:
Jean-François Clervoy went door to door with his invention,
to speak with manufacturers. The inventors know the strengths
of their inventions and where they could be applied –
we try to involve them as much as we can.

Last update: 18 October 2017


« le médecin est une source d'information en laquelle les parents
ont le plus confiance », insiste Christine Jestin de SPF.
Alors que 22 % des personnes disent avoir refusé un vaccin,
le taux de refus grimpe à 50 % quand elles déclarent ne pas avoir confiance
en leur médecin, révèle l'enquête.

Des médecins généralistes au rendez-vous

C'est la raison pour laquelle ce numéro spécial vaccination
s'ouvre avec les points de vue du Collège de la médecine générale
et de jeunes médecins représentés par les internes de santé publique
et de médecine générale (CLiSP, ISNAR-IMG). « La meilleure arme
contre l'hésitation vaccinale est la conviction
et la motivation du prescripteur, écrit le Collège
de la médecine générale. Nous serons au rendez-vous ».
Pour les y aider, SPF publie un nouveau dossier pédagogique
intitulé « Vaccination, la protection collective », le deuxième
de ce type. Le site a pour mission
de répondre de façon claire et transparente aux questions
des usagers. Un espace pro sera ouvert
au second semestre 2018, a révélé Sandrine Randriamampianina,
responsable du site.

L'enquête Baromètre santé 2016 révèle également
que la défiance vaccinale en France fait l'objet de réticences
sélectives contre 3 vaccins, à savoir contre la grippe, l'hépatite B
et le HPV. Autrement dit, « toutes les vaccinations du nourrisson
sont bien acceptées sauf une, contre l'hépatite B »,
a souligné Christine Jestin de SPF.

L'obligation, un engagement nécessaire de l'État

Environ trois quarts des personnes interrogées
se sont déclarées favorables à la vaccination.
Néanmoins, des chiffres inquiètent, notamment le fait
que 13 % des parents ont répondu ne pas faire vacciner
leur enfant en cas de levée de l'obligation pour le DTP.
L'étude de SPF fait également ressortir que les moins favorisés
se feraient moins vacciner en cas de levée de l'obligation.

« Il a été observé une perception positive des vaccins considérés
comme obligatoires », explique Christine Jestin.
Quand les vaccins sont recommandés, ils sont considérés
comme facultatifs avec un fort questionnement sur l'utilité,
l'innocuité et l'efficacité des vaccins recommandés,
est-il expliqué. « L'obligation vaccinale est associée
à une perception de l'engagement de l'État,
a poursuivi Christine Jestin. Livrer la population
à ses propres choix est ressenti comme un désengagement
de l'État et de ses responsabilités.

L'obligation vaccinale est un gage d'équité dans l'accès aux soins ».

Pour le Pr Daniel Lévy-Bruhl, qui signe dans ce numéro spécial un article
consacré à la nécessité d'une couverture très élevée chez les nourrissons,
« il y a bien urgence sanitaire », contrairement à ce qui a pu être opposé,
notamment par le Collège national des généralistes enseignants (CNGE).
Deux vaccins chez le nourrisson ont des couvertures vaccinales insuffisantes
aujourd'hui, le vaccin contre le ROR (91 % pour la 1re dose, 79 % pour la 2nde)
et celui contre le méningocoque C (70 %).

Malgré l'épidémie de 2011, « la couverture contre la rougeole stagne,
argumente l'épidémiologiste. Près de 400 cas de rougeole ont été recensés
en 2017 et une jeune fille de 16 ans est décédée. Entre 2011 et 2017,
plus de 300 cas à méningite C ont été déclarés.
Près d'une centaine de décès aurait pu être évitée, de même
que les séquelles à vie lourdes retrouvées chez un quart des survivants.
C'est un fardeau inacceptable dans un pays comme la France ».

George Stephen Morrison (Rome (Géorgie), 7 janvier 1919 - Coronado (Californie),
17 novembre 2008) est un amiral et aviateur naval de la marine des États-Unis.
Morrison a été le commandant des forces navales américaines dans le golfe du Tonkin
au cours de l'incident du Golfe du Tonkin d'août 1964, qui a servi de prétexte à l'engagement
des États-Unis dans la guerre du Viêt Nam.

Il est le père de Jim Morrison, le chanteur du groupe de rock The Doors1,2,3.

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