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 Déclaration Balfour de 1917, Scorpion du désert et Y'becca

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Nombre de messages : 5980
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Date d'inscription : 12/11/2005

MessageSujet: Déclaration Balfour de 1917, Scorpion du désert et Y'becca   Mar 14 Mar à 11:47

La Déclaration Balfour de 1917 est une lettre ouverte datée du 2 novembre 1917 et signée par Arthur Balfour, le Foreign Secretary britannique. Elle est adressée à Lord Lionel Walter Rothschild (1868-1937), éminence de la communauté juive britannique et financier du mouvement sioniste, aux fins de retransmission.

« Cher Lord Rothschild,

J'ai le plaisir de vous adresser, au nom du gouvernement de Sa Majesté, la déclaration ci-dessous de sympathie à l'adresse des aspirations juives et sionistes, déclaration soumise au Parlement et approuvée par lui.

Le gouvernement de Sa Majesté envisage favorablement l'établissement en Palestine d'un foyer national pour le peuple juif, et emploiera tous ses efforts pour faciliter la réalisation de cet objectif, étant clairement entendu que rien ne sera fait qui puisse porter atteinte ni aux droits civils et religieux des collectivités non juives existant en Palestine, ni aux droits et au statut politique dont les Juifs jouissent dans tout autre pays.

Je vous serais reconnaissant de bien vouloir porter cette déclaration à la connaissance de la Fédération sioniste.

Arthur James Balfour »

La déclaration est publiée dans le Times de Londres le 9 novembre, dans l'encart « Palestine for the Jews. Official Sympathy. »

Par cette lettre, le Royaume-Uni se déclare en faveur de l'établissement en Palestine d'un foyer national juif. Cette déclaration est considérée comme une des premières étapes dans la création de l'État d'Israël1. En effet, la promesse qu'il contient sera mise en œuvre durant la conférence de Paris (1919), préalable au traité de Sèvres (1920), confirmé par la conférence de San Remo (1920).

Préalable

À l'aube de la Première Guerre mondiale, la Palestine fait partie de l'Empire ottoman. C'est l'une des dernières régions que garde l'Empire en déclin, qui avait déjà perdu au cours du XIXe siècle la plupart de ses territoires européens, le Maghreb et le Machrek.

Il est malgré tout l'un des Empires centraux engagés dans le conflit, gardant des liens forts avec l'Allemagne. Les grandes puissances traduisent leur convoitise par des visées différentes : l'achèvement du chemin de fer Berlin-Bagdad, du côté allemand, le remodelage de la région, du côté britannique, que consacre les accords secrets franco-britanniques, dits Sykes-Picot, et le soutien officiel au nationalisme arabe.

La Grande Révolte arabe de 1916-1918 brise l'État ottoman et ouvre plusieurs flancs dans les zones arabes. Les Britanniques secondés par les Français et les Italiens relancent en mars 1917 la campagne en Palestine, mais un premier échec puis un second conduit au renvoi d'une partie du commandement britannique et à six mois d'impasse. Finalement, les troupes britanniques, emmenées par le Général Sir Edmund Allenby, remportent le 31 octobre une victoire décisive à Beer-Sheva près de Gaza. Le succès se confirme le surlendemain 2 novembre durant la troisième bataille de Gaza.
Motivations géopolitiques

Plusieurs raisons différentes ont été évoquées pour justifier la décision de Lord Balfour d'engager l'Empire britannique dans le sionisme.
Ressources du sous-sol

C'est l'époque du « Grand Jeu », selon l'expression de Rudyard Kipling, pour maîtriser les zones riches en pétrole et protéger l'accès aux Indes.

Les Allemands cherchent à achever le chemin de fer Berlin-Bagdad. La campagne de Mésopotamie (1914-15) par les forces britanniques et indiennes cible les gisements de pétrole du Koweït et de Bassorah. Les accords Sykes-Picot, confirmés par le Traité de Sèvres, confirment le tropisme pétrolier.

Le don aux juifs de la Palestine ferait partie d'un plan plus large de contrôle des routes commerciales dans le cadre de ce Grand Jeu. Si l'Irak est proche du Golfe Persique, et donc de l'Inde, la Palestine est proche du canal de Suez en Égypte.
Présence occidentale

D'après Jacob Yeredor, une Palestine en partie juive assure une présence d'origine européenne au Moyen-Orient, région arabe et principalement musulmane2.
Sionisme chrétien

D'après l'historien Jill Hamilton,[réf. insuffisante] il s'agirait de satisfaire les Protestants du courant dit sioniste chrétien, courant principalement américain mais de retour au Royaume-Uni au XIXe siècle.
Revirement d'alliance de la diaspora

Le livre de Martin Watts The Jewish Legion during the First World War reprenant des archives jamais publiées retrace les efforts du gouvernement britannique pour trouver une issue à la Première Guerre mondiale. Le mouvement sioniste est une partie prenante dans ces efforts et offre plusieurs solutions au niveau politique, militaire, économique et journalistique. Au niveau politique depuis 1897, le monde juif est politiquement représenté par le mouvement sioniste créé par le journaliste autrichien Théodore Herzl et représenté en Angleterre durant la guerre par le scientifique russe Chaim Weizmann. Au niveau militaire, les nombreux réfugiés russes en Angleterre qui auraient du se battre dans l'armée russe alliée de l'Angleterre, mais empêchés par les pogroms, ne pouvaient se battre pour l'Angleterre car étrangers[style à revoir]. La solution était de les faire se battre dans une légion. La Légion juive comme proposé par le journaliste ukrainien Vladimir Jabotinsky recrutant les réfugiés russes en Angleterre et aux États-Unis, et les réfugiés de terre sainte au Caire sous administration britannique. Au niveau économique, Chaim Weizmann avait trouvé un procédé pour synthétiser l'acétone nécessaire à la fabrication de la dynamite de façon beaucoup moins chère, ce qui lui valait l'amitié du ministre chargé des fournitures militaires. Le coup médiatique de la déclaration Balfour ainsi que la prise de Jérusalem dans la foulée représentait finalement une motivation pour les Juifs de choisir le camp britannique. Il faut faire remarquer que les Juifs de 1914 étaient très patriotes et se battaient autant pour la France que pour L'Allemagne3.

D'après le pamphlétaire antisioniste américain Benjamin Freedman4, la confédération sioniste aurait approché les Anglais en leur proposant d'user d'influence pour amener les États-Unis à faire la guerre à leurs côtés si la Palestine, alors sous domination ottomane et défendue par la Triplice, leur revenait. Jusqu'en 1916, l'Angleterre était encline à accepter un armistice avec les Puissances centrales, mais, selon Freedman, la possibilité d'un engagement américain a changé la donne.

D'ailleurs, dans un article publié le 3 novembre 1930 par l'Agence télégraphique juive (en), Winston Churchill écrivait, en réponse au Livre blanc de Passfield : « L'année 1917 marqua peut-être la période la plus maussade et la plus sombre de la guerre. (...). C'était l'époque où les éléments les plus résolus du gouvernement britannique cherchaient à enrôler toute influence capable de garder unies à la tâche les nations alliées. Le mouvement sioniste, dans le monde entier, était activement proallié, et, en particulier, pro-britannique. Ce mouvement n'était nulle part plus visible qu'aux États-Unis et nos espoirs reposaient dans une large mesure sur la part active que prendraient les États-Unis dans la lutte sanglante qui s'annonçait. Les talentueux dirigeants du mouvement sioniste et ses nombreuses ramifications exercèrent une influence appréciable sur l'opinion américaine et cette influence (...) était constamment en notre faveur. (...) Les Juifs (sionistes aussi bien que non sionistes) (...) ont œuvré pour le succès de la Grande-Bretagne et pour une étroite coopération entre la Grande-Bretagne et les États-Unis. La Déclaration Balfour ne doit donc pas être regardée comme une promesse faite pour des motifs sentimentaux, c'était une mesure pratique prise dans l'intérêt d'une cause commune à un moment où cette cause ne pouvait se permettre de négliger aucun facteur d'assistance matérielle ou morale5. »

Selon Freedman, cela constitua un changement d'alliance majeur : les pays des Puissances centrales étaient tous favorables aux juifs, tandis que la Triple-Entente incluait l'Empire russe où les juifs n'étaient pas émancipés1 (la déclaration Balfour étant datée d'une semaine avant la révolution d'Octobre).

La déclaration semble sceller ce nouveau pacte, juste après la victoire anglaise à la bataille de Beer-Sheva du 31 octobre 1917.
Autres explications

Limiter les dépenses du Royaume-Uni, écrasé sous le poids de l'effort de guerre.[réf. nécessaire]
Favoriser le recrutement des Juifs de Russie pour la Guerre mondiale, plutôt que pour la Révolution d'Octobre.[réf. nécessaire]
Selon le Premier ministre de l'époque Lloyd George, dans ses Mémoires[réf. insuffisante], remercier Chaim Weizmann pour la synthèse de l'acétone, un composant de la cordite.
Favoriser l'engagement des États-Unis dans la Guerre mondiale par la publication d'une lettre secrète de l'Allemagne vers le Mexique afin de planifier une attaque (voir télégramme Zimmermann)[réf. souhaitée]

Endiguement de la France

L'endiguement de la présence française.[réf. nécessaire]

Créer un prétexte altruiste pour préempter la Palestine face à la France.
Créer un « État tampon » entre Suez et le Liban français, afin d'avoir un État ami dans le monde Arabe, en cas de troubles postérieurs.

Controverse

La déclaration Balfour s'inscrit en contradiction avec les engagements pris auprès des nationalistes arabes qui revendiquent un grand État indépendant (accords Hussein-McMahon en 1915). Le soulèvement arabe fut stratégiquement soutenu par les puissances de l'Entente, en ceci qu'il affaiblissait considérablement l'Empire ottoman.

Ils prolongent en fait les accords Sykes-Picot, conclus secrètement en 1916, qui prévoyaient la mise sous tutelle internationale des possessions ottomanes au Moyen-Orient6.

Lors du démantèlement de l'empire ottoman, le monde arabe s'attendait à l'indépendance promise, mais une partie de la population prend connaissance de la déclaration qu'on essayait de lui cacher. Le 7 novembre 1918, une déclaration franco-britannique est diffusée dans toutes les villes et villages contrôlés par les Alliés ainsi que dans les journaux. Les gouvernements britanniques et français y affirment que « l'objectif recherché par la France et la Grande Bretagne [est] l'établissement de gouvernements et d'administrations nationaux qui détiendront leur autorité de l'initiative et du choix libre des populations indigènes »7.

Cependant, la conférence de San Remo (1920) ne satisfait aucune des demandes arabes. Les mandats britannique et français en Irak, Syrie, Liban et Palestine remplacent la domination turque sur une grande partie du territoire revendiqué par les panarabistes. En outre, ils permettent l'enracinement du mouvement sioniste, désormais soutenu par l'Empire britannique.
Symbole

La déclaration est une date marquante pour le mouvement sioniste. Dès novembre 1918, une parade célèbre son premier anniversaire à Jérusalem8.
La table de travail de Balfour au Musée de la Diaspora de Tel Aviv
Voir aussi

Conflit israélo-arabe
Conflit israélo-palestinien

Notes et références

↑ a et b « Cette lettre ouverte n'a pour les Anglais d'autre intérêt que de rassurer les juifs américains, plus portés à soutenir les Puissances centrales qu'une alliance où figure la Russie au passé lourdement antisémite. Mais elle va légitimer trente ans plus tard la création de l'État d'Israël. » Hérodote.net [archive]
↑ Yeredor Jacob, « La Palestine et la politique des grandes puissances », Politique étrangère, no 3, 1948, 13e année, p. 235-244. doi : 10.3406/polit.1948.2854 [archive].
↑ (en) Martin Watts, The Jewish Legion during the First World War, Palgrave Macmillan, 2004, 287 p. (ISBN 1349519669, présentation en ligne [archive]).
↑ Benjamin Freedman, Conférence de 1961. Une mise en garde, Delacroix, trad. fr. 2006 [archive].
↑ « Churchill, Author of 1922 White Paper, Takes Issue with Passfield », Jewish Telegraphic Agency, en ligne [archive].
↑ « Déclaration Balfour » sur universalis.fr [archive].
↑ Xavier Baron, Les Palestiniens : Genèse d'une nation, Seuil, 2000, p. 21.
↑ (en) Benny Morris, Righteous Victims : A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-1998, Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2011, 800 p. (ISBN 0307788059, présentation en ligne [archive]), p. 158.

Lien externe

(fr) Analyse et cartographie animée sur le site de l'UIA [archive]
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Nombre de messages : 5980
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr
Date d'inscription : 12/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: Déclaration Balfour de 1917, Scorpion du désert et Y'becca   Mar 14 Mar à 11:48

En Israël, le transport ferroviaire est principalement assuré par les Chemins de fer israéliens, l'entreprise publique qui exploite les lignes voyageurs interurbaines et suburbaines ainsi que les services de fret du pays. Le réseau à voie normale est essentiellement développé le long de la côte méditerranéenne et est centrée sur la ville de Tel Aviv-Jaffa. Contrairement aux véhicules routiers, les trains circulent à gauche en Israël.

Sommaire

1 Le réseau ferré israélien
2 Lignes voyageurs
3 Transports en commun ferroviaires
4 Notes et références
5 Traduction
6 Voir aussi
6.1 Articles connexes
6.2 Lien externe

Le réseau ferré israélien

Le réseau ferré israélien, centré sur la gare de Tel Aviv HaHagana, comprend deux lignes longeant la côte depuis la deuxième ville du pays : l'une en direction du nord vers Haïfa et Nahariya, l'autre vers le sud en direction d'Ashkelon, avec une antenne vers Rishon LeZion. Le prolongement de la ligne d'Ashkelon à Ashdod a été ouvert en avril 2005.

Une autre ligne se dirige également vers le nord à Kfar Saba, atteinte avec un prolongement ouvert le 2 septembre 2006.

Une quatrième relie Tel Aviv à Beersheba, avec une antenne dans le nord de Beersheba vers Dimona, ouverte le 17 décembre 2005. Un projet prévoit de prolonger cette antenne jusqu'au port d'Eilat sur la Mer Rouge.

En octobre 2004, une nouvelle ligne reliant Tel Aviv au terminal 3 de l'Aéroport international David-Ben-Gourion a été mise en service. Cette ligne a été prolongée à Modiin en septembre 2007.

Le trafic sur la ligne vers Jérusalem, ouverte en 1892, a été interrompu en 1998 en raison du mauvais état de la ligne. Cependant, elle a été récemment reconstruite et rénovée. La section de cette ligne entre Tel Aviv et Bet Shemesh a rouvert en septembre 2003, tandis que la section restante a ouvert en avril 2005, en même temps que la nouvelle gare de Jérusalem Malha dans le sud de la ville qui remplace l'ancienne gare de Jérusalem construite au XIXe siècle.
Locomotive diesel électrique modèle Euro 4000 de la firme Vossloh à la gare d'Haifa

De plus, une seconde liaison à grande vitesse en direction de Jérusalem, est en construction au nord de la première ligne. Celle-ci, difficile à construire sera électrifiée et utilisera un viaduc et plusieurs longs tunnels pour permettre le passage à grande vitesse des trains depuis la côte à la région montagneuse de Jérusalem. Dans un premier temps, elle atteindra la nouvelle gare souterraine de Binyanei HaUma, située sous la gare routière centrale de Jérusalem. Dans un deuxième temps, elle pourrait être prolongée de façon à être reliée à la ligne historique. Le trajet de Tel Aviv à Jérusalem prendra 28 minutes. La ligne LGV devrait être terminée aux environs de 20172.

Le matériel roulant (locomotives diesel électriques, voitures passagers) est fourni par les entreprises Siemens (Allemagne), Alstom (France), General Motors (USA), Bombardier (Canada), Vossloh (Espagne).
Lignes voyageurs

Le réseau voyageurs est organisé en neuf lignes, dont sept passent par Tel Aviv :

Nahariya – Haïfa – Tel Aviv-Jaffa – Beersheba
Nahariya – Haïfa – Tel Aviv-Jaffa – Aéroport international David-Ben-Gourion – Modiin
Kiryat Motzkin – Haïfa
Binyamina – Tel Aviv-Jaffa – Ashkelon
Kfar Saba – Tel Aviv-Jaffa – Rishon LeZion
Tel Aviv-Jaffa – Jérusalem
Tel Aviv-Jaffa – Beersheba
Beersheba – Dimona
Tel Aviv-Jaffa – Aéroport international David-Ben-Gourion – Modiin

Transports en commun ferroviaires

Deux projets de réseau de transports en commun ferroviaire ont vu le jour : le tramway de Jérusalem dont les travaux sont en cours et le métro de Tel Aviv qui a pris du retard et est toujours à l'état de projet en 2010.

------------------------------------------------
Le chemin de fer transiranien est un projet majeur de construction ferroviaire commencé en 1927 et terminé en 1939, sous la direction du monarque persan (iranien) Reza Shah. Le but était de construire un réseau ferroviaire joignant la capitale Téhéran au golfe Persique et à la mer Caspienne. Le chemin de fer transiranien a été entièrement construit à l'aide de capitaux iraniens. Il mesure 1394 km de long et traverse 4 700 ponts et 224 tunnels

Les chemins de fer de la république islamique d'Iran (IR) est la société nationale d'État possédant le réseau ferroviaire d'Iran. Raja Passenger Train Company est une société lié à la IR et gère ses trains de passagers incluant des trains internationaux entre Téhéran et Istanbul et Téhéran et Damas. La Railway Transportation Company (Compagnie de transport par chemin de fer) est une société liée à la IR qui gère le transport de fret. Le ministère iranien des routes et du transport est le ministère qui supervise le IR. Un projet d'électrification de la voie entre Téhéran et Machhad est à l'étude en 2016 1.

En avril 1928, l' Iran a commandé la première section du chemin de fer au Syndicat versez Chemins de Fer en Perse, américano-allemand. Cela se composait du côté américain de la société Henry Ulen & Company et de l' allemand Consortium pour Bauausführungen en Perse. Dans le Konsortium Bauausführungen en Perse on trouvait Julius Berger Konsortium, basé à Berlin , Philipp Holzmann AG, Frankfurt am Main , et Siemens Bauunion GmbH, de Berlin, lesquels ont uni leurs forces3.
Reza Chah et son fils Mohamma Reza à bord de la voiture du chah sur le chemin de fer Trans-Iranien

La partie sud de la ligne a été construite par les Américains, et le consortium allemand a construit 128 km route de Bandar-e Shah (aujourd'hui Bandar Torkaman ) sur la mer Caspienne à Shahi, aujourd'hui Qaem Shahr . Les télécommunications et des véhicules ont été importés d'Allemagne, le ciment et les pistes de l' Union soviétique. En 1931, les sections sont livrées prêtes3. Pour le règlement de ces deux sections, le coût de l'ensemble est évalué en fonction du nombres de lignes.

À la fin de 1929, la construction de ces premières sections était si avancé que Reza Shah Pahlavi vint voir personnellement. En octobre 1929 , il a emprunté le train pour voyager sur la route du nord entre Bandar-e Gas et Sari, ce qu'il accomplit. Puis il voulait voyager dans la section sud. Il a voyagé en décembre 1929 sur la partie de Dezful à Bandar Shahpur. Le voyage suivant commença le 10 janvier 1930 et pris fin de façon catastrophique : Après de fortes pluies, la voiture-salon du Chah dérailla à cause du chemin de fer trempé. Le roi utilisa alors une autre voiture, qui se trouvait plus loin. La deuxième locomotive continua le trajet, mais dérailla alors qu'elle avait presque atteint sa destination, devant les yeux du monarque à nouveau. Le voyage se termina sous une pluie battante - les rues étaient impraticables - dans Ahwaz où le Shah resta bloqué jusqu'au 25 janvier. Le gouvernement persan versa ensuite la grande partie de leurs paiements à Henry Ulen & Company. Une demande de paiement final de leur part n'eut aucun effet, mais le gouvernement persan a confisqué environ 90% des chemins de fer réalisés, le 15 mai 1930. La gauche américaine s'intéressa au sujet. Le Syndicat versez Chemins de Fer en Perse germano-américain, à une conférence à Bad Kissingen, résolu ultérieurement le conflit4.

Le consortium allemand a ensuite reçu l'ordre supplémentaire - à partir de la route du Nord, déjà terminée - l'autre planification, au Sud. Ce parcours de 590 km se basa sur des images aériennes, mesurées à 310 kilomètres du sol par géodésie3.

Achèvement
Pont aérien aux environs de Khoy, au nord du tracé du chemin de fer transiranien

Le côté allemand espèra que la section sud se matérialisera. Le gouvernement iranien poursuit indépendemment le projet qui rehausse le prestige national, tout en itilisant toujouts des ingénieurs étrangers. Mais il a été constaté que ce type d'organisation de projet resterait retardé pour finir les 1000 km de voie à finir. Pour cette raison, la poursuite des travaux de planification en 1933 est attribuée à un consortium dano-suédois dirigé par la société Kampsax3. Le contrat avec Kampsax stipule que la construction du tronçon restant du chemin de fer Trans-Iranien doit être achevé en six ans. Kampsax a été sélectionné sous la direction de Reza Shah après avoir fait rapport sur la faisabilité de la construction d'une ligne de chemin de fer de 1000 km de long ; Kampsax avait déjà travaillé en terrain montagneux en Turquie et était convaincu des capacités des ingénieurs. L'équipe de gestion qui a repris le projet était composée le co-fondateur de Kampsax, l'ingénieur danois Jørgen Saxild. Kampsax a dirigé la planification du projet, et le travail d'enquête lié à la planification de l'itinéraire et à la supervision de la construction. La construction des sections individuelles et la construction du système de signalisation et des stations ferroviaires a été attribué à un certain nombre d'entreprises de construction européennes en tant que d'autres entreprises sous-traitant pour Kampsax. Dans le tronçon nord de Téhéran ce furent principalement les entreprises italiennes qui furent employées, celles qui possédaient l'expérience nécessaire dans le forage de tunnel. La construction de routes sur un terrain montagneux nécessita 251 grands et 4000 petits ponts et 245 tunnels d'une longueur totale de 80 km. En plus des ingénieurs étrangers, 55 000 travailleurs qualifiés iraniens ont été impliqués dans la construction du chemin de fer. La commande reste dans ses objectifs, ne nécessitant pas d'autres fournitures financières, et faisant désormais appel à des sociétés allemandes, notamment pour la construction des bâtiments de la station de Téhéran5. Kampsax présente finalement le nouveau circuit après 5 ans et 4 mois, plus tôt donc que convenu contractuellement, de sorte que l'inauguration a déjà été célébré le 26 Août 1938.

Le chemin de fer reliait la ville de Bandar-e Shapur (maintenant Bandar-e Emam Khomeyni ) dans le golfe Persique avec Bandar-e Shah (maintenant Bandar Torkaman) dans le nord, par l' intermédiaire d' Ahwaz , Qom et Téhéran . Elle a été vue en Iran comme un succès majeur de la politique de construction de Reza Shah, parce qu'il a fourni la preuve qu'un projet d'infrastructure gigantesque comme avec ses propres ressources était possible. A cet égard, le web avait initialement politique plutôt que l' impact économique.
Fonctionnement

Pour le fonctionnement du chemin de fer, 65 locomotives étaient des locomotives à vapeur achetées en Allemagne. 24 de la série 41.11 de la Friedrich Krupp AG ; 16 séries de 41.35 Henschel et neuf séries 41.51 de la Maschinenfabrik Esslingen . Les 16 locomotives restantes provenaient de Henschel et étaient de classe 51.01. 10 autres locomotives qui avaient été utilisées dans la construction des chemins de fer furent réutilisées. Comme le train de la construction de locomotives 10 exemplaires de cinq coupleurs de Type d'été Série autrichienne 80 furent acquises.

La formation des ingénieurs des chemins de fer iraniens, qui ont pris en charge l'exploitation de la bande après l'ouverture de façon indépendante, réalisée à l'École centrale Reichsbahn en Kirchmöser dans le Brandebourg .
Notes et références

↑ Jean-Pierre Digard, Bernard Hourcade et Yann Richard, L’Iran au XXe siècle : Entre nationalisme, islam et mondialisation, Paris, Fayard, 2007, 499 p. [détail des éditions] (ISBN 978-2-213-63210-0), p73
↑ (de) « Transiranische Eisenbahn », Wikipedia,‎ 24 octobre 2016 (lire en ligne)
↑ a, b, c et d Loi du 9. Chordad 1304/30. Mai 1925; Pohl, S. 189
↑ John A. De-Novo: American Interests and Policies in the Middle East. 1900–1939. Minneapolis 1963, S. 300f (nach: Unfortunate Incidents With Royal Saloon in Persia in 1930. In: HaRakevet 106 (September 2014), S. 18).
↑ Pohl, S. 190

---------------------------------------------------

Le chemin de fer est le mode de transport à grande distance le plus utilisé en Inde. Le transport ferroviaire à travers le pays est assuré par la compagnie publique des Chemins de fer indiens (Indian Railways), dont le réseau ferroviaire traverse le pays de long en large et s'étend sur 63 140 kilomètres de lignes1. C'est l'un des réseaux de chemin de fer les plus longs et les plus chargés au monde, qui transporte plus de 5 milliards de passagers et 350 millions de tonnes de marchandises par an1. Ce réseau s'étend sur les 28 états et sur 3 des 7 territoires du pays, et est raccordé aux réseaux du Népal, du Bangladesh et du Pakistan.

Le chemin de fer est apparu en 1853 en Inde, et en 1947, année de l'indépendance, on comptait pas moins de 42 réseaux. Ces réseaux furent nationalisés et fusionnés en 1951, pour devenir un des plus grands réseaux au monde.

Lieux de production

Les locomotives et les voitures sont produites à plusieurs endroits en Inde :

CLW : Les Chittaranjan Locomotive Works de Chittaranjan produisent des locomotives électriques.
DLW : Les Diesel Locomotive Works de Varanasi produisent des locomotives diesel.
ICF : L'Integral Coach Factory de Perambur fabrique des voitures monocoques.
RCF : La Rail Coach Factory de Kapurthala fabrique également des voitures pour les Chemins de fer indiens.
RWF : La Rail Wheel Factory de Yelahanka fabriques des essieux.

Quelques locomotives électriques ont été produites par BHEL, et des composants de locomotives sont fabriqués à de nombreux autres endroits dans le pays.
Les services voyageurs

le Charminar Express entre Hyderâbâd et Chennai, dont le nom vient du Charminar d'Hyderâbâd ;
le Ashram Express entre Ahmedabad et New Delhi, dont le nom fait référence à l'Ashram de Sabarmati du Mahatma Gandhi ;
le Gitanjali Express entre Mumbai CST et Calcutta, dont le nom fait référence à l'œuvre de Rabindranath Tagore ;
le Parasuram Express entre Mangalore et Thiruvananthapuram, dont le nom fait référence à Parasuram, un personnage mythologique ;
le Prayag Raj Express entre Allâhâbâd et New Delhi, dont le nom fait référence à Prayag, un site de pèlerinage et ancien nom d'Allâhâbâd ;
le Lal Bagh Express entre Bangalore et Chennai, dont le nom fait référence aux jardins botaniques de Lal Bagh ;
le Godavari Express entre Hyderabad et Visakhapatnam dont le nom fait référence au fleuve Godâvarî.



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For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation).
"Al-Quds" and "Bayt al-Maqdis" redirect here. For other uses, see Al-Quds (disambiguation) and Bayt al-Maqdis (disambiguation).
Jerusalem

ירושלים (Hebrew)
القُدس (Arabic)

From upper left: Jerusalem skyline looking north from St. Elijah Monastery, a souq in the Old City, Mamilla Mall, the Knesset, the Dome of the Rock dominating the Old City, the citadel (known as the Tower of David) and the Old City walls, and the Western Wall.
From upper left: Jerusalem skyline looking north from St. Elijah Monastery, a souq in the Old City, Mamilla Mall, the Knesset, the Dome of the Rock dominating the Old City, the citadel (known as the Tower of David) and the Old City walls, and the Western Wall.
Flag of Jerusalem
Flag Emblem of Jerusalem
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Ir ha-Kodesh (The Holy City),
Bayt al-Maqdis (House of the Holiness),
Bait-ul-Muqaddas[1] (The Holy City/House)
Location of Jerusalem
Location of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Location of Jerusalem
Coordinates: 31°47′N 35°13′ECoordinates: 31°47′N 35°13′E
Administered by Israel
Claimed by Israel and Palestine[vii]
Israeli District Jerusalem
Palestinian Governorate Jerusalem
Gihon Spring settlement 4500 BCE
City of David 1010 BCE
Present Old City walls built 1541
East-West Jerusalem division 1948 July 18
Reunification 1967 June 7
Jerusalem Law 1980 July 30
Government
• Type Mayor–Council
• Body Jerusalem Municipality
• Israeli Mayor Nir Barkat
• Palestinian Mayor (East) Zaki al-Ghul (titular)
Area
• City 125,156 dunams (125.156 km2 or 48.323 sq mi)
• Metro 652,000 dunams (652 km2 or 252 sq mi)
Elevation 754 m (2,474 ft)
Population
• City 865,721[2]
• Density 6,917.1/km2 (17,915/sq mi)
• Metro 1,124,300[3]
Demonym(s) Jerusalemite, West Jerusalemite, East Jerusalemite
Yerushalmi
Qudsi/Maqdisi
Ethnicity (2016)[4]
• Jewish 64%
• Arab 35%
• others 1%
Time zones Israel Standard Time (UTC+2)
Palestine Standard Time (UTC+2)
• Summer (DST) Israel Summer Time (UTC+3)
Palestine Summer Time (UTC+3)
Postal code 9XXXXXX
Area code +972-2
Website jerusalem.muni.il (Israeli)[iv]
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Official name The Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iii, vi
Designated 1981
Reference no. 148
Region Jerusalem District
Endangered 1982–present
Jerusalem
יְרוּשָׁלַיִם‎ · القُدس‎
JERUSALEM OLD CITY & DOME OF THE ROCK.jpg
History

Timeline City of David Second Temple Period Middle Ages Kingdom of Jerusalem Mutasarrifate British Mandate Jordanian occupation

Sieges

1000 BCE 925 BCE 721 BCE 597 BCE 587 BCE 70 614 637 1099 1187 1244 1917 1948

Places

Synagogues Churches Mosques

Old City East Jerusalem Zion Temple Temple Mount Western Wall Dome of the Rock Al-Aqsa Mosque Church of the Holy Sepulchre Hebrew University Jerusalem Biblical Zoo

People

Mayors Chief rabbis Grand Muftis Patriarchs
Greek Orthodox Armenian Latin Melkite Anglican Bishop Kings Queens

Demographic history

Positions

Names Religious significance
Judaism Christianity Islam Temple Denial Jerusalem Law

Jerusalem Day Quds Day

Judaization Islamization

Other topics

Flag Emblem Municipality Jerusalem Development Authority Transport Archaeological excavations Jerusalem syndrome Songs "And did those feet in ancient time" Zion

Category Category

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Jerusalem (/dʒəˈruːsələm/; Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם‎ About this sound Yerushalayim [jeruʃaˈlajim]; Arabic: القُدس‎‎ About this sound al-Quds [alˈqʊds]),[i] is a city located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. One of the oldest cities in the world, Jerusalem was named as "Urusalima" on ancient Mesopotamian cuneiform tablets, probably meaning "City of Shalem" after a Canaanite deity, during the early Canaanite period (approximately 2400 BCE). During the Israelite period, significant construction activity in Jerusalem began in the 9th century BCE (Iron Age II), and in the 8th century the city developed into the religious and administrative center of the Kingdom of Judah.[5] It is considered a holy city in the three major Abrahamic religions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

Israelis and Palestinians both claim Jerusalem as their capital, as the State of Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there while the State of Palestine ultimately foresees the city as its seat of power; however, neither claim is widely recognized internationally.

During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times.[6] The part of Jerusalem called the City of David was settled in the 4th millennium BCE.[7] In 1538, walls were built around Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent. Today those walls define the Old City, which has been traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian, Jewish, and Muslim Quarters.[8] The Old City became a World Heritage Site in 1981, and is on the List of World Heritage in Danger.[9] Modern Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old City's boundaries.

According to the Biblical tradition, King David conquered the city from the Jebusites and established it as the capital of the United Kingdom of Israel, and his son, King Solomon, commissioned the building of the First Temple. These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, assumed central symbolic importance for the Jewish people.[10] The sobriquet of holy city (עיר הקודש, transliterated ‘ir haqodesh) was probably attached to Jerusalem in post-exilic times.[11][12][13] The holiness of Jerusalem in Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint[14] which Christians adopted as their own authority,[15] was reinforced by the New Testament account of Jesus's crucifixion there. In Sunni Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city, after Mecca and Medina.[16][17] In Islamic tradition in 610 CE it became the first qibla, the focal point for Muslim prayer (salat),[18] and Muhammad made his Night Journey there ten years later, ascending to heaven where he speaks to God, according to the Quran.[19][20] As a result, despite having an area of only 0.9 square kilometres (0.35 sq mi),[21] the Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance, among them the Temple Mount with its Western Wall, Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque, and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Outside the Old City stands the Garden Tomb.

Today, the status of Jerusalem remains one of the core issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the areas captured and later annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured and later annexed by Jordan. Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it into Jerusalem, together with additional surrounding territory.[viii] One of Israel's Basic Laws, the 1980 Jerusalem Law, refers to Jerusalem as the country's undivided capital. All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset (Israel's parliament), the residences of the Prime Minister and President, and the Supreme Court. Whilst the international community rejected the annexation as illegal and treats East Jerusalem as Palestinian territory occupied by Israel,[22][23][24][25] Israel has a stronger claim to sovereignty over West Jerusalem.[26][27] The international community does not recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital, and the city hosts no foreign embassies. Jerusalem is also home to some non-governmental Israeli institutions of national importance, such as the Hebrew University and the Israel Museum with its Shrine of the Book.

In 2011, Jerusalem had a population of 801,000, of which Jews comprised 497,000 (62%), Muslims 281,000 (35%), Christians 14,000 (around 2%) and 9,000 (1%) were not classified by religion.[28]

A city called Rušalim in the Execration texts of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt (c. 19th century BCE) is widely, but not universally, identified as Jerusalem.[29][30] Jerusalem is called Urušalim in the Amarna letters of Abdi-Heba (1330s BCE).[31]

The name "Jerusalem" is variously etymologized to mean "foundation (Sumerian yeru, 'settlement'/Semitic yry' 'to found, to lay a cornerstone') of the god Shalem",[32][33] the god Shalem was thus the original tutelary deity of the Bronze Age city.[34]

The form Yerushalem or Yerushalayim (Jerusalem) first appears in the Bible, in the Book of Joshua. According to a Midrash, the name is a combination of Yhwh Yir'eh ("God will see to it", the name given by Abraham to the place where he began to sacrifice his son) and the town "Shalem".[35]

The earliest extra-biblical Hebrew writing of the word Jerusalem is dated to the sixth or seventh century BCE[36][37] and was discovered in Khirbet Beit Lei near Beit Guvrin in 1961. The inscription states: "I am Yahweh thy God, I will accept the cities of Judah and I will redeem Jerusalem",[38][39][40] or as other scholars suggest: "Yahweh is the God of the whole earth. The mountains of Judah belong to him, to the God of Jerusalem".[41][42]

Shalim or Shalem was the name of the god of dusk in the Canaanite religion, whose name is based on the same root S-L-M from which the Hebrew word for "peace" is derived (Salam or Shalom in modern Arabic and Hebrew).[43][44] The name thus offered itself to etymologizations such as "The City of Peace",[33][45] "Abode of Peace",[46][47] "dwelling of peace" ("founded in safety"),[48] alternately "Vision of Peace" in some Christian authors.[49] The ending -ayim indicates the dual, thus leading to the suggestion that the name Yerushalayim refers to the fact that the city initially sat on two hills.[50][51] However, the pronunciation of the last syllable as -ayim appears to be a late development, which had not yet appeared at the time of the Septuagint.[citation needed]

An ancient settlement of Jerusalem, founded as early as the Bronze Age on the hill above the Gihon Spring, was according to the Bible named Jebus (e.g., Judges 19:10: יְבוּס, הִיא יְרוּשָׁלִָ: "Jebus, it [is] Jerusalem"[52]).[53] Called the "Fortress of Zion" (metsudat Zion), it was renamed by David as the City of David,[54] and was known by this name in antiquity.[55][56] Another name, "Zion", initially referred to a distinct part of the city, but later came to signify the city as a whole and to represent the biblical Land of Israel. In Greek and Latin the city's name was transliterated Hierosolyma (Greek: Ἱεροσόλυμα; in Greek hieròs, ἱερός, means holy), although the city was renamed Aelia Capitolina for part of the Roman period of its history.

The Aramaic Apocryphon of Genesis of the Dead Sea Scrolls (1QapGen 22:13) equates Jerusalem with the earlier "Salem" (שלם), said to be the kingdom of Melchizedek in Genesis 14:18. Other early Hebrew sources,[57] early Christian renderings of the verse[58] and targumim,[59] however, put Salem in Northern Israel near Shechem (or Sichem), now Nablus, a city of some importance in early sacred Hebrew writing.[60] Possibly the redactor of the Apocryphon of Genesis wanted to dissociate Melchizedek from the area of Shechem, which at the time was in possession of the Samaritans.[61] However that may be, later Rabbinic sources also equate Salem with Jerusalem, mainly to link Melchizedek to later Temple traditions.[62]

In Arabic, Jerusalem is most commonly known as القُدس, transliterated as al-Quds and meaning "The Holy" or "The Holy Sanctuary".[46][47] Official Israeli government policy mandates that أُورُشَلِيمَ, transliterated as Ūršalīm, which is the cognate of the Hebrew and English names, be used as the Arabic language name for the city in conjunction with القُدس. أُورُشَلِيمَ-القُدس.[63] Palestinian Arab families who hail from this city are often called "Qudsi" or "Maqdisi", while Palestinian Muslim Jerusalemites may use these terms as a demonym.[64]
History
Main articles: Timeline of Jerusalem and History of Jerusalem

Given the city's central position in both Jewish nationalism (Zionism) and Palestinian nationalism, the selectivity required to summarize some 5,000 years of inhabited history is often influenced by ideological bias or background (see Historiography and nationalism).[65][66] The periods of Jewish sovereignty in the city's history are important to Israeli/Jewish nationalists (Zionists), who claim the right to the city based on Jewish descent from the Israelite Kingdom of Judah, of which Jerusalem was the capital.[67][68] In contrast, Palestinian nationalists claim the right to the city based on modern Palestinians' descent from many different peoples who have lived in the region over the centuries, rather than those from a particular period.[69][70][71] Both sides claim the history of the city has been politicized by the other in order to strengthen their relative claims to the city,[66][72][73] and that this is borne out by the different focuses the different writers place on the various events and eras in the city's history.
Age

Any city, Jerusalem included, can be defined either in current administrative terms, as the area declared by legal means to be part of a municipality; or in historical terms, as the city which resulted from a process of urban development, united into one entity by a common territory, history and by virtue of its natural and social characteristics.[citation needed] The administrative inclusion of several outlying towns and villages after 1967, which are not fully and organically included in the social, economic, and political fabric of Jerusalem proper, creates confusion regarding any definition of the city of Jerusalem. This spreads to any related issue, such as defining the age of the city.[citation needed]

After the Six-Day War in 1967, Shuafat and other places defined as East Jerusalem were incorporated into the Jerusalem municipal district, in a move not internationally recognized.[74][75] Shuafat lies about 6 kilometres north of Jerusalem's oldest historical part, the so-called City of David, and about 5 kilometres north of the walled Old City. Shuafat's history is distinct of that of its neighbour, Jerusalem, from its prehistoric beginnings through the biblical period, and throughout its later history until 1967.[cit

Prehistory

Shuafat

Shuafat is a historically separate town and since 1967, a neighborhood some 6 kilometres (3.7 miles) north of the City of David area and 5 kilometres (3.1 miles) north of Jerusalem's Old City. In 2016, Israeli archaeologists announced they had unearthed a 7,000-year-old settlement from the early Chalcolithic period in Shuafat.[76] The archaeologists describe the discovery as the oldest of its kind in the region.[65] The Israel Antiquities Authority asserts that the stone houses and artifacts confirm "the existence of a well-established settlement in the Jerusalem area as long ago as the fifth millennium BCE."[77]

City of David and Jerusalem proper

Ceramic evidence indicates occupation of the City of David, an area considered to be the initial nucleus of historical Jerusalem, as far back as the Copper Age (c. 4th millennium BCE).[7][78]
Ancient period
Further information: City of David and History of ancient Israel and Judah
Stepped Stone Structure in Ophel/City of David, the oldest part of Jerusalem

There is no evidence of a permanent settlement in the City of David area until the early Bronze Age (c. 3000–2800 BCE).[78][79] The Execration Texts (c. 19th century BCE), which refer to a city called rwš3lmm, variously transcribed as Rušalimum/Urušalimum/Rôsh-ramen[78][80] and the Amarna letters (c. 14th century BCE) may be the earliest mention of the city.[81][82] Nadav Na'aman argues its fortification as the centre of a kingdom dates to around the 18th century BCE.[83] The first settlement lay on what some call the Ophel ridge,[84] i.e. the south-eastern hill at whose foot the Gihon Spring gushes forth.

In the late Bronze Age, Jerusalem was the capital of an Egyptian vassal city-state,[85] a modest settlement governing a few outlying villages and pastoral areas, with a small Egyptian garrison and ruled by appointees such as king Abdi-Heba,[86] At the time of Seti I and Ramesses II, major construction took place as prosperity increased.[87]

This period, when Canaan formed part of the Egyptian empire corresponds in biblical accounts to Joshua's invasion.[88] In the Bible, Jerusalem is defined as lying within territory allocated to the tribe of Benjamin[89][90] though occupied by Jebusites. David is said to have conquered these in the Siege of Jebus, and transferred his capital from Hebron to Jerusalem which then became the capital of a united Kingdom of Israel,[91] and one of its several religious centres.[92] The choice was perhaps dictated by the fact that Jerusalem did not form part of Israel's tribal system, and was thus suited to serve as the centre of its federation.[87] Opinion is divided over whether a Large Stone Structure and a nearby Stepped Stone Structure may be identified with King David's palace, or dates to a later period.[93][94]
One plan of Solomon's Temple, as reconstructed from indications in the Bible

According to the Bible, King David reigned for 40 years [95] and was succeeded by his son Solomon,[96] who built the Holy Temple on Mount Moriah. Solomon's Temple (later known as the First Temple), went on to play a pivotal role in Jewish religion as the repository of the Ark of the Covenant.[97] On Solomon's death, ten of the northern Tribes of Israel broke with the United Monarchy to form their own nation, with its kings, prophets, priests, traditions relating to religion, capitals and temples in northern Israel. The southern tribes, together with the Aaronid priesthood, remained in Jerusalem, with the city becoming the capital of the Kingdom of Judah.[98][99] Archeological remains from the ancient Israelite period also include Siloam Tunnel, an aqueduct built by Judean king Hezekiah and decorated with ancient Hebrew inscription, known as Siloam Inscription,[100] Broad Wall a defensive fortification built in the 8th century BCE, also by Hezekiah,[101] Monolith of Silwan, Tomb of the Royal Steward, which were decorated with monumental Hebrew inscriptions,[102] and Israelite Tower, remnants of ancient fortifications, built from large, sturdy rocks with carved cornerstones.[103] A huge water reservoir dating from this period was discovered in 2012 near Robinson's Arch, indicating the existence of a densely built-up quarter across the area west of the Temple Mount during the Judean kingdom.[104]

When the Assyrians conquered the Kingdom of Israel in 722 BCE, Jerusalem was strengthened by a great influx of refugees from the northern kingdom. The First Temple period ended around 586 BCE, as the Babylonians conquered Judah and Jerusalem, and laid waste to Solomon's Temple.[105]
Classical antiquity
Main articles: Yehud Medinata, Jerusalem during the Achaemenid period, Jerusalem during the Second Temple Period, and Aelia Capitolina

In 538 BCE, the Persian King Cyrus the Great invited the Jews of Babylon to return to Judah to rebuild the Temple.[106] Construction of the Second Temple was completed in 516 BCE, during the reign of Darius the Great, 70 years after the destruction of the First Temple.[107][108]

Sometime soon after 485 BCE Jerusalem was besieged, conquered and largely destroyed by a coalition of neighbouring states.[109] In about 445 BCE, King Artaxerxes I of Persia issued a decree allowing the city (including its walls) to be rebuilt.[110] Jerusalem resumed its role as capital of Judah and center of Jewish worship.
This picture shows the temple as imagined in 1966 in the Holyland Model of Jerusalem

Many Jewish tombs from the Second Temple period have been rediscovered in Jerusalem. One example, discovered north of the Old City, contains human remains in an ossuary decorated with the Aramaic inscription "Simon the Temple Builder."[111] The Tomb of Abba, also located north of the Old City, bears an Aramaic inscription with Paleo-Hebrew letters reading: "I, Abba, son of the priest Eleaz(ar), son of Aaron the high (priest), Abba, the oppressed and the persecuted, who was born in Jerusalem, and went into exile into Babylonia and brought (back to Jerusalem) Mattathi(ah), son of Jud(ah), and buried him in a cave which I bought by deed."[112] The Tomb of Benei Hezir located in Kidron Valley is decorated by monumental Doric columns and Hebrew inscription, identifying it as the burial site of Second Temple priests.[111] The Tombs of the Sanhedrin, an underground complex of 63 rock-cut tombs, is located in a public park in the northern Jerusalem neighborhood of Sanhedria. These tombs, probably reserved for members of the Sanhedrin[113][114] and inscribed by ancient Hebrew and Aramaic writings, are dated to between 100 BCE and 100 CE.

When Alexander the Great conquered the Persian Empire, Jerusalem and Judea came under Macedonian control, eventually falling to the Ptolemaic dynasty under Ptolemy I. In 198 BCE, Ptolemy V Epiphanes lost Jerusalem and Judea to the Seleucids under Antiochus III. The Seleucid attempt to recast Jerusalem as a Hellenized city-state came to a head in 168 BCE with the successful Maccabean revolt of Mattathias and his five sons against Antiochus IV Epiphanes, and their establishment of the Hasmonean Kingdom in 152 BCE with Jerusalem as its capital.

In 63 BCE, Pompey the Great intervened in a struggle for the Hasmonean throne and captured Jerusalem, extending the influence of the Roman Republic over Judea.[115] Following a short invasion by Parthians, backing the rival Hasmonean rulers, Judea became a scene of struggle between pro-Roman and pro-Parthian forces, eventually leading to the emergence of an Edomite named Herod.
A coin issued by the Jewish rebels in 68 CE. Obverse: "Shekel, Israel. Year 3". Reverse: "Jerusalem the Holy", in the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet

As Rome became stronger, it installed Herod as a Jewish client king. Herod the Great, as he was known, devoted himself to developing and beautifying the city. He built walls, towers and palaces, and expanded the Temple Mount, buttressing the courtyard with blocks of stone weighing up to 100 tons. Under Herod, the area of the Temple Mount doubled in size.[96][116][117] Shortly after Herod's death, in 6 CE Judea came under direct Roman rule as the Iudaea Province,[118] although the Herodian dynasty through Agrippa II remained client kings of neighbouring territories until 96 CE. Roman rule over Jerusalem and the region was challenged in the First Jewish–Roman War, which ended with a Roman victory. The Second Temple was destroyed in 70 CE, and the entire city was destroyed in the war. The contemporary Jewish historian Josephus wrote that the city "was so thoroughly razed to the ground by those that demolished it to its foundations, that nothing was left that could ever persuade visitors that it had once been a place of habitation."[119] Roman rule was again challenged during the Bar Kokhba revolt, beginning in 132 CE and suppressed by the Romans in 135 CE.
Roman siege and destruction of Jerusalem (David Roberts, 1850)

Following the Bar Kokhba revolt, Emperor Hadrian combined Iudaea Province with neighboring provinces under the new name of Syria Palaestina, replacing the name of Judea.[120] The city was renamed Aelia Capitolina,[121] and rebuilt it in the style of a typical Roman town. Jews were prohibited from entering the city on pain of death, except for one day each year, during the holiday of Tisha B'Av. Taken together, these measures[122][123][124] (which also affected Jewish Christians)[125] essentially "secularized" the city.[126] The ban was maintained until the 7th century,[127] though Christians would soon be granted an exemption: during the 4th century, the Roman Emperor Constantine I ordered the construction of Christian holy sites in the city, including the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Burial remains from the Byzantine period are exclusively Christian, suggesting that the population of Jerusalem in Byzantine times probably consisted only of Christians.[128]

In the 5th century, the eastern continuation of the Roman Empire, ruled from the recently renamed Constantinople, maintained control of the city. Within the span of a few decades, Jerusalem shifted from Byzantine to Persian rule, then back to Roman-Byzantine dominion. Following Sassanid Khosrau II's early 7th century push through Syria, his generals Shahrbaraz and Shahin attacked Jerusalem (Persian: Dej Houdkh‎‎) aided by the Jews of Palaestina Prima, who had risen up against the Byzantines.[129]

In the Siege of Jerusalem of 614, after 21 days of relentless siege warfare, Jerusalem was captured. Byzantine chronicles relate that the Sassanids and Jews slaughtered tens of thousands of Christians in the city, many at the Mamilla Pool,[130][131] and destroyed their monuments and churches, including the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. This episode has been the subject of much debate between historians.[132] The conquered city would remain in Sassanid hands for some fifteen years until the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius reconquered it in 629.[133]

Jerusalem reached a peak in size and population at the end of the Second Temple Period, when the city covered two km2 (0.77 square miles) and had a population of 200,000.[123][134]
Middle Ages and caliphates
Main article: History of Jerusalem during the Middle Ages
1455 painting of the Holy Land. Jerusalem is viewed from the west; the Dome of the Rock still retains its octagonal shape, to the right stands Al-Aqsa, shown as a church.

Byzantine Jerusalem was conquered by the Arab armies of Umar ibn al-Khattab in 638 CE.[135] Among Muslims of Islam's earliest era it was referred to as Madinat bayt al-Maqdis ("City of the Temple")[136] which was restricted to the Temple Mount. The rest of the city "... was called Iliya, reflecting the Roman name given the city following the destruction of 70 CE: Aelia Capitolina".[137] Later the Temple Mount became known as al-Haram al-Sharif, "The Noble Sanctuary", while the city around it became known as Bayt al-Maqdis,[138] and later still, al-Quds al-Sharif "The Noble City". The Islamization of Jerusalem began in the first year A.H. (623 CE), when Muslims were instructed to face the city while performing their daily prostrations and, according to Muslim religious tradition, Muhammad's night journey and ascension to heaven took place. After 13 years, the direction of prayer was changed to Mecca.[139][140] In 638 CE the Islamic Caliphate extended its dominion to Jerusalem.[141] With the Arab conquest, Jews were allowed back into the city.[142] The Rashidun caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab signed a treaty with Christian Patriarch of Jerusalem Sophronius, assuring him that Jerusalem's Christian holy places and population would be protected under Muslim rule.[143] Christian-Arab tradition records that, when led to pray at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, one of the holiest sites for Christians, the caliph Umar refused to pray in the church so that Muslims would not request conversion of the church to a mosque.[144] He prayed outside the church, where the Mosque of Umar (Omar) stands to this day, opposite the entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. According to the Gaullic bishop Arculf, who lived in Jerusalem from 679 to 688, the Mosque of Umar was a rectangular wooden structure built over ruins which could accommodate 3,000 worshipers.[145]

When the Arab armies under Umar went to Bayt Al-Maqdes in 637 CE, they searched for the site of the Al-Aqsa Mosque ("The Farthest Mosque") that was mentioned in Quran and Hadith according to Islamic beliefs. Contemporary Arabic and Hebrew sources say the site was full of rubbish, and that Arabs and Jews cleaned it.[146] The Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik commissioned the construction of a shrine on the Temple Mount, now known as the Dome of the Rock, in the late 7th century.[147] Two of the city's most-distinguished Arab citizens of the 10th-century were Al-Muqaddasi, the geographer, and Al-Tamimi, the physician. Al-Muqaddasi writes that Abd al-Malik built the edifice on the Temple Mount in order to compete in grandeur with Jerusalem's monumental churches.[145]

Over the next four hundred years Jerusalem's prominence diminished as Arab powers in the region jockeyed for control.[148] Jerusalem was captured in 1073 by the Seljuk Turkish commander Atsız.[149] After Atsız was killed, the Seljuk prince Tutush I granted the city to Artuk Bey, another Seljuk commander. After Artuk's death in 1091 his sons Sökmen and Ilghazi governed in the city up to 1098 when the Fatimids recaptured the city.
Medieval illustration of capture of Jerusalem during the First Crusade, 1099

A messianic Karaite movement to gather in Jerusalem took place at the turn of the millennium, leading to a "Golden Age" of Karaite scholarship there, which was only terminated by the Crusades.[150] In 1099, the Fatimid ruler expelled the native Christian population before Jerusalem was conquered by the Crusaders, who massacred most of its Muslim and Jewish inhabitants when they took the solidly defended city by assault, after a period of siege, and left the city emptied of people; later the Crusaders created the Kingdom of Jerusalem. The city had been virtually emptied and recolonized by a variegated inflow of Greeks, Bulgarians, Hungarians, Georgians, Armenians, Syrians, Egyptians, Nestorians, Maronites, Jacobite Miaphysites, Copts and others, to block the return of the surviving Muslims and Jews. The north-eastern quarter was repopulated with Eastern Christians from the Transjordan.[151] As a result, by 1099 Jerusalem's population had climbed back to some 30,000.[152]

In 1187, the city was wrested from the Crusaders by Saladin who permitted Jews and Muslims to return and settle in the city.[153] Under the terms of surrender, once ransomed, 60,000 Franks were expelled. The Eastern Christian populace was permitted to stay.[154] Under the Ayyubid dynasty of Saladin, a period of huge investment began in the construction of houses, markets, public baths, and pilgrim hostels as well as the establishment of religious endowments. However, for most of the 13th century, Jerusalem declined to the status of a village due to city's fall of strategic value and Ayyubid internecine struggles.[155]

From 1229 to 1244, Jerusalem peacefully reverted to Christian control as a result of a 1229 Treaty agreed between the crusading Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II and al-Kamil, the Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, that ended the Sixth Crusade.[156][157][158][159][160] The Ayyubids retained control of the Muslim holy places, and Arab sources suggest that Frederick was not permitted to restore Jerusalem's fortifications.

In 1244, Jerusalem was sacked by the Khwarezmian Tatars, who decimated the city's Christian population and drove out the Jews.[161] The Khwarezmian Tatars were driven out by the Ayyubids in 1247. When Nachmanides visited in 1267 he found only two Jewish families, in a population of 2,000, 300 of whom were Christians, in the city.[162] From 1260[163] to 1517, Jerusalem was ruled by the Mamluks. During this period of time many clashes occurred between the Mamluks on one side and the crusaders and the Mongols on the other side. The area also suffered from many earthquakes and black plague.[164] Some European Christian presence was maintained in the city by the Order of the Holy Sepulchre.
16th–19th centuries − Ottoman rule
David's Citadel and the Ottoman walls
Ben-Zakai Synagogue in 1893
The Garden Tomb in Jerusalem – a new holy site established by British Protestants in the 19th century.

In 1517, Jerusalem and environs fell to the Ottoman Turks, who generally remained in control until 1917.[153] Jerusalem enjoyed a prosperous period of renewal and peace under Suleiman the Magnificent – including the rebuilding of magnificent walls around the Old City. Throughout much of Ottoman rule, Jerusalem remained a provincial, if religiously important center, and did not straddle the main trade route between Damascus and Cairo.[165] The English reference book Modern history or the present state of all nations, written in 1744, stated that "Jerusalem is still reckoned the capital city of Palestine, though much fallen from its ancient grandeaur".[166]

The Ottomans brought many innovations: modern postal systems run by the various consulates and regular stagecoach and carriage services were among the first signs of modernization in the city.[167] In the mid 19th century, the Ottomans constructed the first paved road from Jaffa to Jerusalem, and by 1892 the railroad had reached the city.[167]

With the annexation of Jerusalem by Muhammad Ali of Egypt in 1831, foreign missions and consulates began to establish a foothold in the city. In 1836, Ibrahim Pasha allowed Jerusalem's Jewish residents to restore four major synagogues, among them the Hurva.[168] In the countrywide Peasants' Revolt, Qasim al-Ahmad led his forces from Nablus and attacked Jerusalem, aided by the Abu Ghosh clan, and entered the city on 31 May 1834. The Christians and Jews of Jerusalem were subjected to attacks. Ibrahim's Egyptian army routed Qasim's forces in Jerusalem the following month.[169]

Ottoman rule was reinstated in 1840, but many Egyptian Muslims remained in Jerusalem and Jews from Algiers and North Africa began to settle in the city in growing numbers.[168] In the 1840s and 1850s, the international powers began a tug-of-war in Palestine as they sought to extend their protection over the region's religious minorities, a struggle carried out mainly through consular representatives in Jerusalem.[170] According to the Prussian consul, the population in 1845 was 16,410, with 7,120 Jews, 5,000 Muslims, 3,390 Christians, 800 Turkish soldiers and 100 Europeans.[168] The volume of Christian pilgrims increased under the Ottomans, doubling the city's population around Easter time.[171]

In the 1860s, new neighborhoods began to develop outside the Old City walls to house pilgrims and relieve the intense overcrowding and poor sanitation inside the city. The Russian Compound and Mishkenot Sha'ananim were founded in 1860,[172] followed by many others that included Mahane Israel (1868), Nahalat Shiv'a (1869), German Colony (1872), Beit David (1873), Mea Shearim (1874), Shimon HaZadiq (1876), Beit Ya'aqov (1877), Abu Tor (1880s), American-Swedish Colony (1882), Yemin Moshe (1891), and Mamilla, Wadi al-Joz around the turn of the century. In 1867 an American Missionary reports an estimated population of Jerusalem of 'above' 15,000, with 4,000 to 5,000 Jews and 6,000 Muslims. Every year there were 5,000 to 6,000 Russian Christian Pilgrims.[173] In 1874 Jerusalem became the center of a special administrative district, independent of the Syria Vilayet and under the direct authority of Istanbul called the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem.[174]

Until the 1880s there were no formal orphanages in Jerusalem, as families generally took care of each other. In 1881 the Diskin Orphanage was founded in Jerusalem with the arrival of Jewish children orphaned by a Russian pogrom. Other orphanages founded in Jerusalem at the beginning of the 20th century were Zion Blumenthal Orphanage (1900) and General Israel Orphan's Home for Girls (1902).[175]

Christian missionaries from the Anglican and Lutheran Churches arrived in the 19th Century,[176] as did missionaries from the Christian & Missionary Alliance (CMA).[
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1917–1948 − British Mandate
Further information: Mandatory Palestine

In 1917 after the Battle of Jerusalem, the British Army, led by General Edmund Allenby, captured the city.[178] In 1922, the League of Nations at the Conference of Lausanne entrusted the United Kingdom to administer Palestine, neighbouring Transjordan, and Iraq beyond it.

The British had to deal with a conflicting demand that was rooted in Ottoman rule. Agreements for the supply of water, electricity, and the construction of a tramway system — all under concessions granted by the Ottoman authorities — had been signed by the city of Jerusalem and a Greek citizen, Euripides Mavromatis, on 27 January 1914. Work under these concessions had not begun and, by the end of the war the British occupying forces refused to recognize their validity. Mavromatis claimed that his concessions overlapped with the Auja Concession that the government had awarded to Rutenberg in 1921 and that he had been deprived of his legal rights. The Mavromatis concession, in effect despite earlier British attempts to abolish it, covered Jerusalem and other localities (e.g., Bethlehem) within a radius of 20 km (12 miles) around the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.[179]

From 1922 to 1948 the total population of the city rose from 52,000 to 165,000, comprised two-thirds of Jews and one-third of Arabs (Muslims and Christians).[180] Relations between Arab Christians and Muslims and the growing Jewish population in Jerusalem deteriorated, resulting in recurring unrest. In Jerusalem, in particular, Arab riots occurred in 1920 and in 1929. Under the British, new garden suburbs were built in the western and northern parts of the city[181][182] and institutions of higher learning such as the Hebrew University were founded.[183]
1948–1967 − Jordanian/Israeli rule
Palmach soldiers attack the San Simon monastery in Katamon, Jerusalem, April 1948 (battle reconstruction)
Further information: 1947–1948 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine, 1948 Arab-Israeli War, Battle for Jerusalem (1948), and Corpus separatum (Jerusalem)
See also: United Nations General Assembly Resolution 194, Jordanian occupation of the West Bank, East Jerusalem, and West Jerusalem
United Nations
United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine
Jerusalem Corpus Separatum


v t e

Lifta
Shu'fat
JERUSALEM
at-Tur
al-Eizariya
Abu Dis
Silwan
Sur Baher
Umm Tuba
Ramat Rahel
Sharafat
Beit Safafa
Beit Jala
BETHLEHEM
Beit Sahur
al-Maliha
Ein Karim
Deir Yassin
Motza
al-'Isawiya

As the British Mandate for Palestine was expiring, the 1947 UN Partition Plan recommended "the creation of a special international regime in the City of Jerusalem, constituting it as a Corpus separatum under the administration of the UN."[184] The international regime (which also included the city of Bethlehem) was to remain in force for a period of ten years, whereupon a referendum was to be held in which the residents were to decide the future regime of their city.[185] However, this plan was not implemented, as the 1948 war erupted, while the British withdrew from Palestine and Israel declared its independence.[186]

In contradiction to the Partition Plan, which envisioned a city separated from the Arab state and the Jewish state, Israel conquered the area which later would become West Jerusalem, along with major parts of the Arab territory allotted to the future Arab State; Jordan took control of East Jerusalem, along with the West Bank. The war led to displacement of Arab and Jewish populations in the city. The 1,500 residents of the Jewish Quarter of the Old City were expelled and a few hundred taken prisoner when the Arab Legion captured the quarter on 28 May.[187][188] Arab residents of Katamon, Talbiya, and the German Colony were driven from their homes. By the time of the armistice that ended active fighting, Israel had control of 12 of Jerusalem's 15 Arab residential quarters. An estimated minimum of 30,000 people had become refugees.[189][190]
Israeli policemen meet a Jordanian Legionnaire near the Mandelbaum Gate (circa 1950)

The war of 1948 resulted in the division of Jerusalem, so that the old walled city lay entirely on the Jordanian side of the line. A no-man's land between East and West Jerusalem came into being in November 1948: Moshe Dayan, commander of the Israeli forces in Jerusalem, met with his Jordanian counterpart Abdullah el-Tell in a deserted house in Jerusalem's Musrara neighborhood and marked out their respective positions: Israel's position in red and Jordan's in green. This rough map, which was not meant as an official one, became the final line in the 1949 Armistice Agreements, which divided the city and left Mount Scopus as an Israeli exclave inside East Jerusalem.[191] Barbed wire and concrete barriers ran down the center of the city, passing close by Jaffa Gate on the western side of the old walled city, and a crossing point was established at Mandelbaum Gate slightly to the north of the old walled city. Military skirmishes frequently threatened the ceasefire.

After the establishment of the state of Israel, Jerusalem was declared its capital city.[192] Jordan formally annexed East Jerusalem in 1950, subjecting it to Jordanian law, and in 1953 declared it the "second capital" of Jordan.[186][193][194] Only the United Kingdom and Pakistan formally recognized such annexation, which, in regard to Jerusalem, was on a de facto basis.[195] Some scholars argue that the view that Pakistan recognized Jordan's annexation is dubious.[196][197]
Hurva Synagogue in the Jewish Quarter of Jerusalem
Jordanian Arab Legion soldier in the rubble of Hurva

After 1948, since the old walled city in its entirety was to the east of the armistice line, Jordan was able to take control of all the holy places therein. While Muslim holy sites were maintained and renovated,[198] contrary to the terms of the armistice agreement, Jews were denied access to Jewish holy sites, many of which were destroyed or desecrated. Jordan allowed only very limited access to Christian holy sites,[199] and restrictions were imposed on the Christian population that led many to leave the city. Of the 58 synagogues in the Old City, half were either razed or converted to stables and hen-houses over the course of the next 19 years, including the Hurva and the Tiferet Yisrael Synagogue. The 3,000-year-old[200] Mount of Olives Jewish Cemetery was desecrated, with gravestones used to build roads, latrines and Jordanian army fortifications. 38,000 graves in the Jewish Cemetery were destroyed, and Jews were forbidden from being buried there.[201][202] The Western Wall was transformed into an exclusively Muslim holy site associated with al-Buraq.[203] Israeli authorities neglected to protect the tombs in the Muslim Mamilla Cemetery in West Jerusalem, which contains the remains of figures from the early Islamic period,[204] facilitating the creation of a parking lot and public lavatories in 1964.[205] Many other historic and religiously significant buildings were demolished and replaced by modern structures during the Jordanian occupation.[206] During this period, the Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa Mosque underwent major renovations.[207]

During the 1948 war, the Jewish residents of Eastern Jerusalem were expelled by Jordan's Arab Legion. Jordan allowed Arab Palestinian refugees from the war to settle in the vacated Jewish Quarter, which became known as Harat al-Sharaf.[208] In 1966 the Jordanian authorities relocated 500 of them to the Shua'fat refugee camp as part of plans to turn the Jewish quarter into a public park.[209][210]
From 1967 − Israeli rule
Map of East Jerusalem (2010)

In 1967, despite Israeli pleas that Jordan remain neutral during the Six-Day War, Jordan, which had concluded a defense agreement with Egypt on May 30, 1967, attacked Israeli-held West Jerusalem on the war's second day. After hand-to-hand fighting between Israeli and Jordanian soldiers on the Temple Mount, the Israel Defense Forces captured East Jerusalem, along with the entire West Bank. On 27 June 1967, three weeks after the war ended, in the reunification of Jerusalem, Israel extended its law and jurisdiction to East Jerusalem, including the city's Christian and Muslim holy sites, along with some nearby West Bank territory which comprised 28 Palestinian villages, incorporating it into the Jerusalem Municipality,[211][212] although it carefully avoided using the term annexation. On 10 July, Foreign Minister Abba Eban explained to the UN Secretary General: ″The term 'annexation' which was used by supporters of the vote is not accurate. The steps that were taken [by Israel] relate to the integration of Jerusalem in administrative and municipal areas, and served as a legal basis for the protection of the holy places of Jerusalem.″[213] Israel conducted a census of Arab residents in the areas annexed. Residents were given permanent residency status and the option of applying for Israeli citizenship. Since 1967, new Jewish residential areas have mushroomed in the eastern sector, while no new Palestinian neighbourhoods have been created.[214]

Jewish and Christian access to the holy sites inside the old walled city was restored. Israel left the Temple Mount under the jurisdiction of an Islamic waqf, but opened the Western Wall to Jewish access. The Moroccan Quarter, which was located adjacent to the Western Wall, was evacuated and razed.[215] to make way for a plaza for those visiting the wall.[216] On 18 April 1968, an expropriation order by the Israeli Ministry of Finance more than doubled the size of the Jewish Quarter, evicting its Arab residents and seizing over 700 buildings of which 105 belonged to Jewish inhabitants prior to the Jordanian occupation of the city.[citation needed] The order designated these areas for public use, but they were intended for Jews alone.[217] The government offered 200 Jordanian dinars to each displaced Arab family.

After the Six-Day War the population of Jerusalem increased by 196%. The Jewish population grew by 155%, while the Arab population grew by 314%. The proportion of the Jewish population fell from 74% in 1967 to 72% in 1980, to 68% in 2000, and to 64% in 2010.[218] Israeli Agriculture Minister Ariel Sharon proposed building a ring of Jewish neighborhoods around the city's eastern edges. The plan was intended to make East Jerusalem more Jewish and prevent it from becoming part of an urban Palestinian bloc stretching from Bethlehem to Ramallah. On 2 October 1977, the Israeli cabinet approved the plan, and seven neighborhoods were subsequently built on the city's eastern edges. They became known as the Ring Neighborhoods. Other Jewish neighborhoods were built within East Jerusalem, and Israeli Jews also settled in Arab neighborhoods.[219][220]

The annexation of East Jerusalem was met with international criticism. The Israeli Foreign Ministry disputes that the annexation of Jerusalem was a violation of international law.[221][222] The final status of Jerusalem has been one of the most important areas of discord between Palestinian and Israeli negotiators for peace. Areas of discord have included whether the Palestinian flag can be raised over areas of Palestinian custodianship and the specificity of Israeli and Palestinian territorial borders.[223]
Political status
Further information: Positions on Jerusalem
International status
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While the international community regards East Jerusalem, including the entire Old City, as part of the occupied Palestinian territories, neither part, West or East Jerusalem, is recognized as part of the territory of Israel or the State of Palestine. Under the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1947, Jerusalem was envisaged to become a corpus separatum administered by the United Nations. In the war of 1948, the western part of the city was occupied by forces of the nascent state of Israel, while the eastern part was occupied by Jordan. The international community largely considers the legal status of Jerusalem to derive from the partition plan, and correspondingly refuses to recognize Israeli sovereignty over the city.
Status under Israeli rule
Supreme Court of Israel

Following the 1967 Six-Day War, Israel extended its jurisdiction and administration over East Jerusalem, establishing new municipal borders.

In 2010, Israel approved legislation giving Jerusalem the highest national priority status in Israel. The law prioritized construction throughout the city, and offered grants and tax benefits to residents to make housing, infrastructure, education, employment, business, tourism, and cultural events more affordable. Communications Minister Moshe Kahlon said that the bill sent "a clear, unequivocal political message that Jerusalem will not be divided", and that "all those within the Palestinian and international community who expect the current Israeli government to accept any demands regarding Israel's sovereignty over its capital are mistaken and misleading".[224]

The status of the city, and especially its holy places, remains a core issue in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. The Israeli government has approved building plans in the Muslim Quarter of the Old City[225] in order to expand the Jewish presence in East Jerusalem, while some Islamic leaders have made claims that Jews have no historical connection to Jerusalem, alleging that the 2,500-year-old Western Wall was constructed as part of a mosque.[226][227] Palestinians regard Jerusalem as the capital of the State of Palestine,[228] and the city's borders have been the subject of bilateral talks. A team of experts assembled by the then Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak in 2000 concluded that the city must be divided, since Israel had failed to achieve any of its national aims there.[229] However, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said in 2014 that "Jerusalem will never be divided".[230] A poll conducted in June 2013 found that 74% of Israeli Jews reject the idea of a Palestinian capital in any portion of Jerusalem, though 72% of the public regarded it as a divided city.[231] A poll conducted by Palestinian Center for Public Opinion and American Pechter Middle East Polls for the Council on Foreign Relations, among East Jerusalem Arab residents in 2011 revealed that 39% of East Jerusalem Arab residents would prefer Israeli citizenship contrary to 31% who opted for Palestinian citizenship. According to the poll, 40% of Palestinian residents would prefer to leave their neighborhoods if they would be placed under Palestinian rule.[232]
Jerusalem as capital
Capital of Israel
Israeli Foreign Ministry building

On 5 December 1949, Israel's first Prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion, proclaimed Jerusalem as Israel's capital,[233] and since then all branches of the Israeli government—legislative, judicial, and executive—have resided there, except for the Ministry of Defense, which is located at HaKirya in Tel Aviv.[234] At the time of the proclamation, Jerusalem was divided between Israel and Jordan and thus only West Jerusalem was proclaimed Israel's capital.

In July 1980, Israel passed the Jerusalem Law as Basic Law. The law declared Jerusalem the "complete and united" capital of Israel.[235] The "Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel" is a major reason for the international community not to recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital. The United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 478 on 20 August 1980, which declared that the Basic Law is "a violation of international law", is "null and void and must be rescinded forthwith". Member states were called upon to withdraw their diplomatic representation from Jerusalem.[236] Following the resolution, 22 of the 24 countries that previously had their embassy in (West) Jerusalem relocated them in Tel Aviv, where many embassies already resided prior to Resolution 478. Costa Rica and El Salvador followed in 2006.[237] Currently, there are no embassies located within the city limits of Jerusalem, although there are four consulates in the city.[238]

In 1995, the United States Congress passed the Jerusalem Embassy Act, which required, subject to conditions, that its embassy be moved from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem.[239] However, U.S. presidents have argued that Congressional resolutions regarding the status of Jerusalem are merely advisory. The Constitution reserves foreign relations as an executive power, and as such, the United States embassy is still in Tel Aviv.[240] Due to the non-recognition of Jerusalem as Israel's capital, some non-Israeli press use Tel Aviv as a metonym for Israel.[241][242][243][244]
Capital of Palestine
See also: East Jerusalem § Jerusalem as capital
Orient House in East Jerusalem that served as the headquarters of the PLO in the 1980s and 1990s. It was closed by Israel in 2001, two days after the Sbarro restaurant suicide bombing.

The Palestinian National Authority views East Jerusalem as occupied territory according to United Nations Security Council Resolution 242. The Palestinian Authority claims Jerusalem, including the Haram al-Sharif, as the capital of the State of Palestine,[228] The PLO claims that West Jerusalem is also subject to permanent status negotiations. However, it has stated that it would be willing to consider alternative solutions, such as making Jerusalem an open city.[245]

The PLO's current position is that East Jerusalem, as defined by the pre-1967 municipal boundaries, shall be the capital of Palestine and West Jerusalem the capital of Israel, with each state enjoying full sovereignty over its respective part of the city and with its own municipality. A joint development council would be responsible for coordinated development.[246]

Some states, such as Russia[247] and China,[248] recognize the Palestinian state with East Jerusalem as its capital. United Nations General Assembly Resolution 58/292 affirmed that the Palestinian people have the right to sovereignty over East Jerusalem.[249]
Government precinct and national institutions
The Knesset building in Givat Ram

Many national institutions of Israel are located in Kiryat HaMemshala in Givat Ram in Jerusalem as a part of the Kiryat HaLeom project which is intended to create a large district that will house most government agencies and national cultural institutions. Some government buildings are located in Kiryat Menachem Begin. The city is home to the Knesset,[250] the Supreme Court,[251] the Bank of Israel, the National Headquarters of the Israel Police, the official residences of the President and Prime Minister, the Cabinet, and all ministries except for the Ministry of Defense (which is located in central Tel Aviv's HaKirya district) and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (which is located in the Tel Aviv suburb of Rishon LeZion, nearby Beit Dagan). Prior to the creation of the State of Israel, Jerusalem served as the administrative capital of Mandatory Palestine, which included present-day Israel and Jordan.[252] From 1949 until 1967, West Jerusalem served as Israel's capital, but was not recognized as such internationally because UN General Assembly Resolution 194 envisaged Jerusalem as an international city. As a result of the Six-Day War in 1967, the whole of Jerusalem came under Israeli control. On 27 June 1967, the government of Levi Eshkol extended Israeli law and jurisdiction to East Jerusalem, but agreed that administration of the Temple Mount compound would be maintained by the Jordanian waqf, under the Jordanian Ministry of Religious Endowments.[253] In 1988, Israel ordered the closure of Orient House, home of the Arab Studies Society, but also the headquarters of the Palestine Liberation Organization, for security reasons. The building reopened in 1992 as a Palestinian guesthouse.[254][255] The Oslo Accords stated that the final status of Jerusalem would be determined by negotiations with the Palestinian Authority. The accords banned any official Palestinian presence in the city until a final peace agreement, but provided for the opening of a Palestinian trade office in East Jerusalem. The Palestinian Authority regards East Jerusalem as the capital of a future Palestinian state.[256][257] President Mahmoud Abbas has said that any agreement that did not include East Jerusalem as the capital of Palestine would be unacceptable.[258] Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has similarly stated that Jerusalem would remain the undivided capital of Israel. Due to its proximity to the city, especially the Temple Mount, Abu Dis, a Palestinian suburb of Jerusalem, has been proposed as the future capital of a Palestinian state by Israel. Israel has not incorporated Abu Dis within its security wall around Jerusalem. The Palestinian Authority has built a possible future parliament building for the Palestinian Legislative Council in the town, and its Jerusalem Affairs Offices are all located in Abu Dis.[259]
Municipal administration
Main article: Municipality of Jerusalem

The Jerusalem City Council is a body of 31 elected members headed by the mayor, who serves a five-year term and appoints eight deputies. The former mayor of Jerusalem, Uri Lupolianski, was elected in 2003.[260] In the November 2008 city elections, Nir Barkat came out as the winner and is now the mayor. Apart from the mayor and his deputies, City Council members receive no salaries and work on a voluntary basis. The longest-serving Jerusalem mayor was Teddy Kollek, who spent 28 years—-six consecutive terms-—in office. Most of the meetings of the Jerusalem City Council are private, but each month, it holds a session that is open to the public.[260] Within the city council, religious political parties form an especially powerful faction, accounting for the majority of its seats.[261] The headquarters of the Jerusalem Municipality and the mayor's office are at Safra Square (Kikar Safra) on Jaffa Road. The municipal complex, comprising two modern buildings and ten renovated historic buildings surrounding a large plaza, opened in 1993 moved from the Jerusalem Historical City Hall Building.[262] The city falls under the Jerusalem District, with Jerusalem as the district's capital. 37% of the population is Palestinian, but only 10% of tax revenues are allocated for them. In East Jerusalem, 52% of the land is excluded from development, 35% designated for Jewish settlements, and 13% for Palestinian use, almost all of which is already built on.[214]
Geography
Astronauts' view of Jerusalem
View from Beit Meir in the Judaean Mountains

Jerusalem is situated on the southern spur of a plateau in the Judaean Mountains, which include the Mount of Olives (East) and Mount Scopus (North East). The elevation of the Old City is approximately 760 m (2,490 ft).[263] The whole of Jerusalem is surrounded by valleys and dry riverbeds (wadis). The Kidron, Hinnom, and Tyropoeon Valleys intersect in an area just south of the Old City of Jerusalem.[264] The Kidron Valley runs to the east of the Old City and separates the Mount of Olives from the city proper. Along the southern side of old Jerusalem is the Valley of Hinnom, a steep ravine associated in biblical eschatology with the concept of Gehenna or Hell.[265] The Tyropoeon Valley commenced in the northwest near the Damascus Gate, ran south-southeasterly through the center of the Old City down to the Pool of Siloam, and divided the lower part into two hills, the Temple Mount to the east, and the rest of the city to the west (the lower and the upper cities described by Josephus). Today, this valley is hidden by debris that has accumulated over the centuries.[264] In biblical times, Jerusalem was surrounded by forests of almond, olive and pine trees. Over centuries of warfare and neglect, these forests were destroyed. Farmers in the Jerusalem region thus built stone terraces along the slopes to hold back the soil, a feature still very much in evidence in the Jerusalem landscape.[citation needed]

Water supply has always been a major problem in Jerusalem, as attested to by the intricate network of ancient aqueducts, tunnels, pools and cisterns found in the city.[266]

Jerusalem is 60 kilometers (37 mi)[267] east of Tel Aviv and the Mediterranean Sea. On the opposite side of the city, approximately 35 kilometers (22 mi)[268] away, is the Dead Sea, the lowest body of water on Earth. Neighboring cities and towns include Bethlehem and Beit Jala to the south, Abu Dis and Ma'ale Adumim to the east, Mevaseret Zion to the west, and Ramallah and Giv'at Ze'ev to the north.[269][270][271]

Mount Herzl, at the western side of the city near the Jerusalem Forest, serves as the national cemetery of Israel.
Climate
View from the Sherover Promenade overlooking the old city of Jerusalem during the snowfall of the 2013 cold snap.

The city is characterized by a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa ), with hot, dry summers, and mild, wet winters. Snow flurries usually occur once or twice a winter, although the city experiences heavy snowfall every three to four years, on average, with short-lived accumulation.

January is the coldest month of the year, with an average temperature of 9.1 °C (48.4 °F); July and August are the hottest months, with an average temperature of 24.2 °C (75.6 °F), and the summer months are usually rainless. The average annual precipitation is around 537 mm (21 in), with rain occurring almost entirely between October and May.[272] Snowfall is rare, and large snowfalls are even more rare.[273][274] Jerusalem received over 30 centimetres (12 in) of snow on 13 December 2013, which nearly paralyzed the city.[273][274] A day in Jerusalem has on average, 9.3 sunshine hours. With summers averaging similar temperatures as the coastline, the maritime influence from the Mediterranean Sea is strong, in particular given that Jerusalem is located on a similar latitude as scorching hot deserts not far to its east.

The highest recorded temperature in Jerusalem was 44.4 °C (111.9 °F) on 28 and 30 August 1881, and the lowest temperature recorded was −6.7 °C (19.9 °F) on 25 January 1907.

Most of the air pollution in Jerusalem comes from vehicular traffic.[275] Many main streets in Jerusalem were not built to accommodate such a large volume of traffic, leading to traffic congestion and more carbon monoxide released into the air. Industrial pollution inside the city is sparse, but emissions from factories on the Israeli Mediterranean coast can travel eastward and settle over the city.[275][276]
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MessageSujet: Re: Déclaration Balfour de 1917, Scorpion du désert et Y'becca   Mar 14 Mar à 11:52

Demographics
Demographic history
Main article: Demographic history of Jerusalem

Jerusalem's population size and composition has shifted many times over its 5,000 year history. Since medieval times, the Old City of Jerusalem has been divided into Jewish, Muslim, Christian, and Armenian quarters.

Most population data pre-1905 is based on estimates, often from foreign travellers or organisations, since previous census data usually covered wider areas such as the Jerusalem District.[282] These estimates suggest that since the end of the Crusades, Muslims formed the largest group in Jerusalem until the mid-nineteenth century.

Between 1838 and 1876, a number of estimates exist which conflict as to whether Jews or Muslims were the largest group during this period, and between 1882 and 1922 estimates conflict as to exactly when Jews became a majority of the population.
Current demographics
Guesthouse in Mishkenot Sha'ananim, the first Jewish neighborhood built outside the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem, on a hill directly across from Mount Zion
Sheikh Jarrah, a predominantly Arab neighborhood on the road to Mount Scopus
The Armenian Quarter

In December 2007, Jerusalem had a population of 747,600—64% were Jewish, 32% Muslim, and 2% Christian.[283] At the end of 2005, the population density was 5,750.4/km2 (14,893/sq mi).[284][285] According to a study published in 2000, the percentage of Jews in the city's population had been decreasing; this was attributed to a higher Muslim birth rate, and Jewish residents leaving. The study also found that about nine percent of the Old City's 32,488 people were Jews.[286] Of the Jewish population, 200,000 live in East Jerusalem settlements which are considered illegal under international law.[287]

In 2005, 2,850 new immigrants settled in Jerusalem, mostly from the United States, France and the former Soviet Union. In terms of the local population, the number of outgoing residents exceeds the number of incoming residents. In 2005, 16,000 left Jerusalem and only 10,000 moved in.[284] Nevertheless, the population of Jerusalem continues to rise due to the high birth rate, especially in the Haredi Jewish and Arab communities. Consequently, the total fertility rate in Jerusalem (4.02) is higher than in Tel Aviv (1.98) and well above the national average of 2.90. The average size of Jerusalem's 180,000 households is 3.8 people.[284]

In 2005, the total population grew by 13,000 (1.8%)—similar to the Israeli national average, but the religious and ethnic composition is shifting. While 31% of the Jewish population is made up of children below the age fifteen, the figure for the Arab population is 42%.[284] This would seem to corroborate the observation that the percentage of Jews in Jerusalem has declined over the past four decades. In 1967, Jews accounted for 74 percent of the population, while the figure for 2006 is down nine percent.[288] Possible factors are the high cost of housing, fewer job opportunities and the increasingly religious character of the city, although proportionally, young Haredim are leaving in higher numbers.[citation needed] The percentage of secular Jews, or those who 'wear their faith lightly' is dropping, with some 20,000 leaving the city over the past seven years (2012). They now number 31% of the population, the same percentage as the rising ultra-orthodox population.[289] Many move to the suburbs and coastal cities in search of cheaper housing and a more secular lifestyle.[290] In 2009, the percentage of Haredim in the city was increasing. As of 2009, out of 150,100 schoolchildren, 59,900 or 40% are in state-run secular and National Religious schools, while 90,200 or 60% are in Haredi schools. This correlates with the high number of children in Haredi families.[291][292]

While some Israelis avoid Jerusalem for its relative lack of development and religious and political tensions, the city has attracted Palestinians, offering more jobs and opportunity than any city in the West Bank or Gaza Strip. Palestinian officials have encouraged Arabs over the years to stay in the city to maintain their claim.[293][294] Palestinians are attracted to the access to jobs, healthcare, social security, other benefits, and quality of life Israel provides to Jerusalem residents.[295] Arab residents of Jerusalem who choose not to have Israeli citizenship are granted an Israeli identity card that allows them to pass through checkpoints with relative ease and to travel throughout Israel, making it easier to find work. Residents also are entitled to the subsidized healthcare and social security benefits Israel provides its citizens, and have the right to vote in municipal elections. Arabs in Jerusalem can send their children to Israeli-run schools, although not every neighborhood has one, and universities. Israeli doctors and highly regarded hospitals such as Hadassah Medical Center are available to residents.[296]

Demographics and the Jewish-Arab population divide play a major role in the dispute over Jerusalem. In 1998, the Jerusalem Development Authority proposed expanding city limits to the west to include more areas heavily populated with Jews.[297]

Within the past few years, there has been a steady increase in the Jewish birthrate and a steady decrease in the Arab birthrate. In May 2012, it was reported that the Jewish birthrate had overtaken the Arab birthrate. Currently, the city's birthrate stands about 4.2 children per Jewish family and 3.9 children per Arab family.[298][299] In addition, increasing numbers of Jewish immigrants chose to settle in Jerusalem. In the last few years, thousands of Palestinians have moved to previously fully Jewish neighborhoods of East Jerusalem, built after the 1967 Six-Day War. In 2007, 1,300 Palestinians lived in the previously exclusively Jewish neighborhood of Pisgat Ze'ev and constituted three percent of the population in Neve Ya'akov. In the French Hill neighborhood, Palestinians today constitute one-sixth of the overall population.[300]

At the end of 2008, the population of East Jerusalem was 456,300, comprising 60% of Jerusalem's residents. Of these, 195,500 (43%) are Jews, (comprising 40% of the Jewish population of Jerusalem as a whole), 260,800 (57%) are Muslim (comprising 98% of the Muslim population of Jerusalem).[301] In 2008, the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics reported the number of Palestinians living in East Jerusalem was 208,000 according to a recently completed census.[302]

Jerusalem's Jewish population is overwhelmingly religious. Only 21% of Jewish residents are secular. In addition, Haredi Jews comprise 30% of the city's adult Jewish population. In a phenomenon seen rarely around the world, the percentage of Jewish men who work, 47%, is exceeded by the percentage of Jewish women who work, 50%.[303] The young and less religious continue to leave according to a 2016 Central Bureau of Statistics report which noted 6,740 people left. The opening of high speed rail transit to Tel Aviv next year and the New Jerusalem Gateway Business District[304] currently under construction is designed to alter business, tourism, and hopefully reverse the population exodus.[305]

Jerusalem had a population of 801,000 in 2011, of which Jews comprised 497,000 (62%), Muslims 281,000 (35%), Christians 14,000 (around 2%) and 9,000 (1%) were not classified by religion.[28]
Urban planning issues

Critics of efforts to promote a Jewish majority in Jerusalem say that government planning policies are motivated by demographic considerations and seek to limit Arab construction while promoting Jewish construction.[306] According to a World Bank report, the number of recorded building violations between 1996 and 2000 was four and half times higher in Jewish neighborhoods but four times fewer demolition orders were issued in West Jerusalem than in East Jerusalem; Arabs in Jerusalem were less likely to receive construction permits than Jews, and "the authorities are much more likely to take action against Palestinian violators" than Jewish violators of the permit process.[307] In recent years, private Jewish foundations have received permission from the government to develop projects on disputed lands, such as the City of David archaeological park in the 60% Arab neighborhood of Silwan (adjacent to the Old City),[308] and the Museum of Tolerance on Mamilla Cemetery (adjacent to Zion Square).[307][309]

Religious significance

Jerusalem has been sacred to Judaism for roughly 3000 years, to Christianity for around 2000 years, and to Islam for approximately 1400 years. The 2000 Statistical Yearbook of Jerusalem lists 1204 synagogues, 158 churches, and 73 mosques within the city.[310] Despite efforts to maintain peaceful religious coexistence, some sites, such as the Temple Mount, have been a continuous source of friction and controversy.

Jerusalem has been sacred to the Jews since King David proclaimed it his capital in the 10th century BCE. Jerusalem was the site of Solomon's Temple and the Second Temple.[10] Although not mentioned in the Torah / Pentateuch,[311] it is mentioned in the Bible 632 times. Today, the Western Wall, a remnant of the wall surrounding the Second Temple, is a Jewish holy site second only to the "Holy of Holies" on the Temple Mount itself.[312] Synagogues around the world are traditionally built with the Holy Ark facing Jerusalem,[313] and Arks within Jerusalem face the Holy of Holies.[314] As prescribed in the Mishna and codified in the Shulchan Aruch, daily prayers are recited while facing towards Jerusalem and the Temple Mount. Many Jews have "Mizrach" plaques hung on a wall of their homes to indicate the direction of prayer.[314][315]

Christianity reveres Jerusalem for its Old Testament history, and also for its significance in the life of Jesus. According to the New Testament, Jesus was brought to Jerusalem soon after his birth[316] and later in his life cleansed the Second Temple.[317] The Cenacle, believed to be the site of Jesus' Last Supper, is located on Mount Zion in the same building that houses the Tomb of King David.[318][319] Another prominent Christian site in Jerusalem is Golgotha, the site of the crucifixion. The Gospel of John describes it as being located outside Jerusalem,[320] but recent archaeological evidence suggests Golgotha is a short distance from the Old City walls, within the present-day confines of the city.[321] The land currently occupied by the Church of the Holy Sepulchre is considered one of the top candidates for Golgotha and thus has been a Christian pilgrimage site for the past 2000 years.[321][322][323]

Jerusalem is the third-holiest city in Sunni Islam.[16] For approximately a year, before it was permanently switched to the Kaaba in Mecca, the qibla (direction of prayer) for Muslims was Jerusalem.[324][325] The city's lasting place in Islam, however, is primarily due to Muhammad's Night of Ascension (c. CE 620). Muslims believe Muhammad was miraculously transported one night from Mecca to the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, whereupon he ascended to Heaven to meet previous prophets of Islam.[326][327][328] The first verse in the Qur'an's Surat al-Isra notes the destination of Muhammad's journey as al-Aqsa (the farthest) mosque,[329][330] in reference to the location in Jerusalem. The hadith, the recorded sayings of the Prophet Mohammad, name Jerusalem as the location of the Al-Aqsa Mosque.[331] The al-Aqsa Mosque, derived from the name mentioned in the Qur'an, was built on the Temple Mount under the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid to commemorate the place from which Muslims believe Muhammad ascended to Heaven.[332]
Culture
The Shrine of the Book, housing the Dead Sea Scrolls, at the Israel Museum

Although Jerusalem is known primarily for its religious significance, the city is also home to many artistic and cultural venues. The Israel Museum attracts nearly one million visitors a year, approximately one-third of them tourists.[333] The 20-acre (81,000 m2) museum complex comprises several buildings featuring special exhibits and extensive collections of Judaica, archaeological findings, and Israeli and European art. The Dead Sea scrolls, discovered in the mid-20th century in the Qumran Caves near the Dead Sea, are housed in the Museum's Shrine of the Book.[334]

Next to the Israel Museum is the Bible Lands Museum, near The National Campus for the Archaeology of Israel, which includes the Israel Antiquities Authority offices. A World Bible Center is planned to be built adjacent to Mount Zion at a site called the "Bible Hill". A planned World Kabbalah Center is to be located on the nearby promenade, overlooking the Old City.

The Youth Wing, which mounts changing exhibits and runs an extensive art education program, is visited by 100,000 children a year. The museum has a large outdoor sculpture garden and a scale-model of the Second Temple.[333] The Rockefeller Museum, located in East Jerusalem, was the first archaeological museum in the Middle East. It was built in 1938 during the British Mandate.[335][336]

The national cemetery of Israel is located at the city's western edge, near the Jerusalem Forest on Mount Herzl. The western extension of Mount Herzl is the Mount of Remembrance, where the main Holocaust museum of Israel is located. Yad Vashem, Israel's national memorial to the victims of the Holocaust, houses the world's largest library of Holocaust-related information.[337] It houses an estimated 100,000 books and articles. The complex contains a state-of-the-art museum that explores the genocide of the Jews through exhibits that focus on the personal stories of individuals and families killed in the Holocaust. An art gallery featuring the work of artists who perished is also present. Further, Yad Vashem commemorates the 1.5 million Jewish children murdered by the Nazis, and honors the Righteous among the Nations.[338]
National Library of Israel

The Museum on the Seam, which explores issues of coexistence through art, is situated on the road dividing eastern and western Jerusalem.[339]

The Jerusalem Symphony Orchestra, established in the 1940s,[340] has appeared around the world.[340] The International Convention Center (Binyanei HaUma) near the entrance to city houses the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra. The Jerusalem Cinemateque, the Gerard Behar Center (formerly Beit Ha'Am) in downtown Jerusalem, the Jerusalem Music Center in Yemin Moshe,[341] and the Targ Music Center in Ein Kerem also present the arts. The Israel Festival, featuring indoor and outdoor performances by local and international singers, concerts, plays, and street theater has been held annually since 1961, and Jerusalem has been the major organizer of this event. The Jerusalem Theater in the Talbiya neighborhood hosts over 150 concerts a year, as well as theater and dance companies and performing artists from overseas.[342] The Khan Theater, located in a caravanserai opposite the old Jerusalem train station, is the city's only repertoire theater.[343] The station itself has become a venue for cultural events in recent years as the site of Shav'ua Hasefer (an annual week-long book fair) and outdoor music performances.[344] The Jerusalem Film Festival is held annually, screening Israeli and international films.[345]
Jerusalem Biblical Zoo

The Jerusalem Biblical Zoo has ranked consistently as Israel's top tourist attraction for Israelis.[346][347]

The Ticho House in downtown Jerusalem houses the paintings of Anna Ticho and the Judaica collections of her husband, an ophthalmologist who opened Jerusalem's first eye clinic in this building in 1912.[348] Al-Hoash, established in 2004, is a gallery for the preservation of Palestinian art.[349]
Heichal Shlomo

In 1974 the Jerusalem Cinematheque was founded. In 1981 it was moved to a new building on Hebron Road near the Valley of Hinnom and the Old City.

Jerusalem was declared the Capital of Arab Culture in 2009.[350] Jerusalem is home to the Palestinian National Theatre, which engages in cultural preservation as well as innovation, working to rekindle Palestinian interest in the arts.[351] The Edward Said National Conservatory of Music sponsors the Palestine Youth Orchestra[352] which toured Arab states of the Persian Gulf and other Middle East countries in 2009.[353] The Islamic Museum on the Temple Mount, established in 1923, houses many Islamic artifacts, from tiny kohl flasks and rare manuscripts to giant marble columns.[354] While Israel approves and financially supports some Arab cultural activities,[citation needed] Arab Capital of Culture events were banned because they were sponsored by the Palestine National Authority.[350] In 2009, a four-day culture festival was held in the Beit 'Anan suburb of Jerusalem, attended by more than 15,000 people[355]

The Abraham Fund and the Jerusalem Intercultural Center] (JICC) promote joint Jewish-Palestinian cultural projects. The Jerusalem Center for Middle Eastern Music and Dance[356] is open to Arabs and Jews and offers workshops on Jewish-Arab dialogue through the arts.[357] The Jewish-Arab Youth Orchestra performs both European classical and Middle Eastern music.[358]

In 2006, a 38 km (24 mi) Jerusalem Trail was opened, a hiking trail that goes to many cultural sites and national parks in and around Jerusalem.
Israel Broadcasting Authority office

In 2008, the Tolerance Monument, an outdoor sculpture by Czesław Dźwigaj, was erected on a hill between Jewish Armon HaNetziv and Arab Jebl Mukaber as a symbol of Jerusalem's quest for peace.[359]
Media

Jerusalem is the state broadcasting center of Israel. The Israel Broadcasting Authority's main office is located in Jerusalem, as well as the TV and radio studios for Israel Radio, Channel 2, Channel 10, and part of the radio studios of BBC News. The Jerusalem Post and The Times of Israel are also headquartered in Jerusalem. Local newspapers include Kol Ha'Ir and The Jerusalem Times. God TV, an international Christian television network is also based in the city.

Economy
Historically, Jerusalem's economy was supported almost exclusively by religious pilgrims, as it was located far from the major ports of Jaffa and Gaza.[360] Jerusalem's religious and cultural landmarks today remain the top draw for foreign visitors, with the majority of tourists visiting the Western Wall and the Old City,[284] In 2010, Jerusalem was named the top leisure travel city in Africa and the Middle East by Travel + Leisure magazine.[361] in 2013, 75% of the 3.5 million tourists to Israel visited Jerusalem.[362]

Since the establishment of the State of Israel, the national government has remained a major player in Jerusalem's economy. The government, centered in Jerusalem, generates a large number of jobs, and offers subsidies and incentives for new business initiatives and start-ups.[360] Although Tel Aviv remains Israel's financial center, a growing number of high tech companies are moving to Jerusalem, providing 12,000 jobs in 2006.[363] Northern Jerusalem's Har Hotzvim industrial park and the Jerusalem Technology Park in south Jerusalem are home to large Research and Development centers of international tech companies, among them Intel, Cisco, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, IBM, Mobileye, Johnson & Johnson, Medtronic and more .[364] In April 2015, Time Magazine picked Jerusalem as one of the five emerging tech hubs in the world, proclaiming that "The city has become a flourishing center for biomed, cleantech, Internet/mobile startups, accelerators, investors and supporting service providers."[365]

Higher than average percentages are employed in education (17.9% vs. 12.7%); health and welfare (12.6% vs. 10.7%); community and social services (6.4% vs. 4.7%); hotels and restaurants (6.1% vs. 4.7%); and public administration (8.2% vs. 4.7%).[366] During the British Mandate, a law was passed requiring all buildings to be constructed of Jerusalem stone in order to preserve the unique historic and aesthetic character of the city.[182] Complementing this building code, which is still in force, is the discouragement of heavy industry in Jerusalem; only about 2.2% of Jerusalem's land is zoned for "industry and infrastructure." By comparison, the percentage of land in Tel Aviv zoned for industry and infrastructure is twice as high, and in Haifa, seven times as high.[284] Only 8.5% of the Jerusalem District work force is employed in the manufacturing sector, which is half the national average (15.8%).
Mamilla Avenue adorned with upscale shops adjacent to the Old City Walls.

Although many statistics indicate economic growth in the city, since 1967, East Jerusalem has lagged behind the development of West Jerusalem.[360] Nevertheless, the percentage of households with employed persons is higher for Arab households (76.1%) than for Jewish households (66.8%). The unemployment rate in Jerusalem (8.3%) is slightly better than the national average (9.0%), although the civilian labor force accounted for less than half of all persons fifteen years or older—lower in comparison to that of Tel Aviv (58.0%) and Haifa (52.4%).[284] Poverty remains a problem in the city as 37% of the families in Jerusalem lived in 2011 below the poverty line. According to a report by the Association for Civil Rights in Israel (ACRI), 78% of Arabs in Jerusalem lived in poverty in 2012, up from 64% in 2006. While the ACRI attributes the increase to the lack of employment opportunities, infrastructure and a worsening educational system, Ir Amim blames the legal status of Palestinians in Jerusalem.[367]
High-rise construction
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MessageSujet: Re: Déclaration Balfour de 1917, Scorpion du désert et Y'becca   Mar 14 Mar à 11:53

High-rise construction

Jerusalem has traditionally had a low-rise skyline. About 18 tall buildings were built at different times in the downtown area when there was no clear policy over the matter. One of them, Holyland Tower 1, Jerusalem's tallest building, is a skyscraper by international standards, rising 32 stories. Holyland Tower 2, which has been approved for construction, will reach the same height.[368][369]

A new master plan for the city will see many high-rise buildings, including skyscrapers, built in certain, designated areas of downtown Jerusalem. Under the plan, towers will line Jaffa Road and King George Street. One of the proposed towers along King George Street, the Migdal Merkaz HaYekum, is planned as a 65-story building, which would make it one of the tallest buildings in Israel. At the entrance to the city, near the Jerusalem Chords Bridge and the Central Bus Station, twelve towers rising between 24 and 33 stories will be built, as part of a complex that will also include an open square and an underground train station serving a new express line between Jerusalem and Tel Aviv, and will be connected by bridges and underground tunnels. Eleven of the skyscrapers will be either office or apartment buildings, and one will be a 2,000-room hotel. The complex is expected to attract many businesses from Tel Aviv, and become the city's main business hub. In addition, a complex for the city's courts and the prosecutor's office will be built, as well as new buildings for Central Zionist Archives and Israel State Archives.[370][371][372] The skyscrapers built throughout the city are expected to contain public space, shops, restaurants, and entertainment venues, and it has been speculated that this may lead to a revitalization of downtown Jerusalem.[373][374] In August 2015, the city council approved construction of a 344-foot pyramid-shaped skyscraper designed by Daniel Libeskind and Yigal Levi, in place of a rejected previous design by Libeskind; it is set to break ground by 2019.[375]
Transportation
Main article: Transport in Jerusalem
Light Rail tram on Jaffa Road
Jerusalem Chords Bridge
Jerusalem Central Bus Station

Jerusalem is served by highly developed communication infrastructures, making it a leading logistics hub for Israel.

The Jerusalem Central Bus Station, located on Jaffa Road, is the busiest bus station in Israel. It is served by Egged Bus Cooperative, which is the second-largest bus company in the world,[376] The Dan serves the Bnei Brak-Jerusalem route along with Egged, and Superbus serves the routes between Jerusalem, Modi'in Illit, and Modi'in-Maccabim-Re'ut. The companies operate from Jerusalem Central Bus Station. Arab neighborhoods in East Jerusalem and routes between Jerusalem and locations in the West Bank are served by the East Jerusalem Central Bus Station, a transportation hub located near the Old City's Damascus Gate. The Jerusalem Light Rail initiated service in August 2011. According to plans, the first rail line will be capable of transporting an estimated 200,000 people daily, and has 23 stops. The route is from Pisgat Ze'ev in the north via the Old City and city center to Mt. Herzl in the south.

Another work in progress[377] is a new high-speed rail line from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem, which is scheduled to be completed in 2017. Its terminus will be a new underground station (80 m (262.47 ft) deep) serving the International Convention Center and the Central Bus Station,[378] and is planned to be extended eventually to Malha station. Israel Railways operates train services to Malha train station from Tel Aviv via Beit Shemesh.[379][380]

Begin Expressway is one of Jerusalem's major north-south thoroughfares; it runs on the western side of the city, merging in the north with Route 443, which continues toward Tel Aviv. Route 60 runs through the center of the city near the Green Line between East and West Jerusalem. Construction is progressing on parts of a 35-kilometer (22 mi) ring road around the city, fostering faster connection between the suburbs.[381][382] The eastern half of the project was conceptualized decades ago, but reaction to the proposed highway is still mixed.[381]

Jerusalem is served by Ben Gurion Airport, some 50 kilometres (31 miles) northwest of the Jerusalem, on the route to Tel Aviv. In the past it was also served by the local Atarot Airport. Atarot ceased operation in the year 2000.
Education
Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus campus
Hand in Hand, a bilingual Jewish-Arab school in Jerusalem
Academy of the Hebrew Language

Jerusalem is home to several prestigious universities offering courses in Hebrew, Arabic and English. Founded in 1925, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem has been ranked among the top 100 schools in the world.[383] The Board of Governors has included such prominent Jewish intellectuals as Albert Einstein and Sigmund Freud.[183] The university has produced several Nobel laureates; recent winners associated with Hebrew University include Avram Hershko,[384] David Gross,[385] and Daniel Kahneman.[386] One of the university's major assets is the Jewish National and University Library, which houses over five million books.[387] The library opened in 1892, over three decades before the university was established, and is one of the world's largest repositories of books on Jewish subjects. Today it is both the central library of the university and the national library of Israel.[388] The Hebrew University operates three campuses in Jerusalem, on Mount Scopus, on Giv'at Ram and a medical campus at the Hadassah Ein Kerem hospital. the Academy of the Hebrew Language are located in the Hebrew university in Givat Ram and the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities located near the Presidents house.

Al-Quds University was established in 1984[389] to serve as a flagship university for the Arab and Palestinian peoples. It describes itself as the "only Arab university in Jerusalem".[390] New York Bard College and Al-Quds University agreed to open a joint college in a building originally built to house the Palestinian Legislative Council and Yasser Arafat's office. The college gives Master of Arts in Teaching degrees.[391] Al-Quds University resides southeast of the city proper on a 190,000 square metres (47 acres) Abu Dis campus.[389] Other institutions of higher learning in Jerusalem are the Jerusalem Academy of Music and Dance[392] and Bezalel Academy of Art and Design,[393] whose buildings are located on the campuses of the Hebrew University.

The Jerusalem College of Technology, founded in 1969, combines training in engineering and other high-tech industries with a Jewish studies program.[394] It is one of many schools in Jerusalem, from elementary school and up, that combine secular and religious studies. Numerous religious educational institutions and Yeshivot, including some of the most prestigious yeshivas, among them the Brisk, Chevron, Midrash Shmuel and Mir, are based in the city, with the Mir Yeshiva claiming to be the largest.[395] There were nearly 8,000 twelfth-grade students in Hebrew-language schools during the 2003–2004 school year.[284] However, due to the large portion of students in Haredi Jewish frameworks, only fifty-five percent of twelfth graders took matriculation exams (Bagrut) and only thirty-seven percent were eligible to graduate. Unlike public schools, many Haredi schools do not prepare students to take standardized tests.[284] To attract more university students to Jerusalem, the city has begun to offer a special package of financial incentives and housing subsidies to students who rent apartments in downtown Jerusalem.[396]

Schools for Arabs in Jerusalem and other parts of Israel have been criticized for offering a lower quality education than those catering to Israeli Jewish students.[397] While many schools in the heavily Arab East Jerusalem are filled to capacity and there have been complaints of overcrowding, the Jerusalem Municipality is currently building over a dozen new schools in the city's Arab neighborhoods.[398] Schools in Ras el-Amud and Umm Lison opened in 2008.[399] In March 2007, the Israeli government approved a 5-year plan to build 8,000 new classrooms in the city, 40 percent in the Arab sector and 28 percent in the Haredi sector. A budget of 4.6 billion shekels was allocated for this project.[400] In 2008, Jewish British philanthropists donated $3 million for the construction of schools for Arabs in East Jerusalem.[399] Arab high school students take the Bagrut matriculation exams, so that much of their curriculum parallels that of other Israeli high schools and includes certain Jewish subjects.[397]
Sports
See also: Beitar Jerusalem F.C., Hapoel Jerusalem B.C., Jerusalem Marathon, and Jerusalem March
Teddy Stadium, Malha

The two most popular sports are football (soccer) and basketball.[401] Beitar Jerusalem Football Club is one of the most well known in Israel. Fans include political figures who often attend its games.[402] Jerusalem's other major football team, and one of Beitar's top rivals, is Hapoel Jerusalem F.C. Whereas Beitar has been Israel State Cup champion seven times,[403] Hapoel has won the Cup only once. Beitar has won the top league six times, while Hapoel has never succeeded. Beitar plays in the more prestigious Ligat HaAl, while Hapoel is in the second division Liga Leumit. Since its opening in 1992, Teddy Stadium has been Jerusalem's primary football stadium, with a capacity of 31,733.[404] The most popular Palestinian football club is Jabal Al Mukaber (since 1976) which plays in West Bank Premier League. The club hails from Mount Scopus at Jerusalem, part of the Asian Football Confederation, and plays at the Faisal Al-Husseini International Stadium at Al-Ram, across the West Bank Barrier.[405][406]

In basketball, Hapoel Jerusalem is one of the top teams in the top division. The club has won Israel's championship in 2015, the State Cup four times, and the ULEB Cup in 2004.[407]

The Jerusalem Marathon, established in 2011, is an international marathon race held annually in Jerusalem in the month of March. The full 42-kilometer race begins at the Knesset, passes through Mount Scopus and the Old City's Armenian Quarter, and concludes at Sacher Park. In 2012, the Jerusalem Marathon drew 15,000 runners, including 1,500 from fifty countries outside Israel.[408][409][410][411][412]

A popular non-competitive sports event is the Jerusalem March, held annually during the Sukkot festival.
Notable residents
Main category: People from Jerusalem
King David's Tomb
This article's list of residents may not follow Wikipedia's verifiability or notability policies. Please improve this article by removing names that do not have independent reliable sources showing they are notable AND residents, or by incorporating the relevant publications into the body of the article through appropriate citations. (May 2016)
Ancient

Melchizedek, Jebusite King of Salem and priest who blesses Abram
Abdi-Heba, Hurrian chieftain
Zadok, Levitical High Priest
King David (c. 1040 BCE-c. 970 BCE), second King of the united Kingdom of Israel
Araunah, Jebusite vendor of land
Solomon the Great (c. 1011 BCE-c. 931 BCE), third King of Israel
Hezekiah, thirteenth king of Judah
Isaiah, a major prophet of ancient Israel living around the time of 8th-century BC Kingdom of Judah
Joel, a prophet of ancient Israel, the second of the twelve minor prophets
Judas Maccabeus (d. 160 BCE), leader of the Maccabean revolt against the Seleucid Empire
Herod the Great, (d. 4 BCE), a Roman client king of Judea who expanded the Second Temple in Jerusalem and built the fortress at Masada
Hillel the Elder (110 BCE-10 CE), a famous Jewish religious leader and one of the most important figures in Jewish history, associated with the development of the Mishnah and the Talmud
Josephus (37–100), Jewish-Roman historian
James the Just (d. 69), Jewish-Christian Bishop of Jerusalem
Simon bar Kokhba (d. 135), leader of the Bar Kokhba revolt against the Roman Empire in 132 CE

Medieval

al-Muqaddasi (946–1000), Arab geographer
Ibn al-Qaisarani (1056–1113), Arab historian
Judah Halevi (1075–1141), Spanish Jewish physician, poet and philosopher
Fulk, King of Jerusalem (1131–1143), King of the Crusader State in Jerusalem
Nahmanides (1194–1270), prominent medieval Jewish rabbi and physician

Modern

born 1820–1849

William Holman Hunt (1827–1910), English painter, cofounder of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
Conrad Schick (1822–1901), German architect, archaeologist and Protestant missionary
Yousef Al-Khalidi (born 1829–1907), Mayor of Jerusalem and Member of the Ottoman Parliament
Haim Aharon Valero (1845–1923), banker, entrepreneur and a prominent figure in the Jewish community of 19th century Jerusalem
Eliezer Ben-Yehuda (1858–1922), a Litvak lexicographer and newspaper editor credited for the revival of the Hebrew language in the modern era

born 1850–1879

Shlomo Moussaieff (1852–1922), a founder of the Bukharim neighborhood
Herbert Plumer (1857–1932), senior British Army officer of the First World War
Menachem Ussishkin (1863–1941), Zionist leader and head of the Jewish National Fund
Abraham Isaac Kook (1865–1935), first Ashkenazi chief rabbi of Mandatory Palestine
Khalil al-Sakakini (born 1878), Palestinian Christian scholar and Arab nationalist

born 1880–1909

Shmuel Yosef Agnon (1888–1970), Israeli Nobel Prize laureate writer and was one of the central figures of modern Hebrew fiction
Helena Kagan (1889–1978), physician, Israeli pioneer in pediatrics
Rachel Bluwstein (1890–1931), Hebrew poet
Ludwig Blum (1891–1975), Czechoslovakia-born Israeli painter, known as "the painter of Jerusalem"
Daniel Auster (1893–1963), three time Mayor of Jerusalem
Haj Amin al-Husayni (1897–1974), a Palestinian Arab nationalist and influential Muslim leader in Mandatory Palestine

born 1910s

Teddy Kollek (1911–2007), mayor of Jerusalem and founder of the Jerusalem Foundation
Ruhi al-Khatib (1914–1994), Palestinian nationalist and politician
Ruchoma Shain (1914–2013), teacher and author
Ephraim Katzir (1916–2009), biophysicist and fourth President of Israel
Yigael Yadin (1917–1984), Israeli archeologist, politician, and second Chief of Staff of the IDF
Menachem Lewin (1918–2011) Israeli chemist working in polymer, fiber and nanotechnology research

born 1920s

Yitzhak Navon (1921–2015), politician (fifth President of Israel), diplomat, and author
Yitzhak Rabin (1922–95), general, the fifth Prime Minister of Israel, and Nobel Peace Prize winner
Trude Dothan (born 1922), Austrian Jewish archaeologist in Israel
Yitzchok Scheiner (born 1922), rabbi
Shlomo Hillel (born 1923), Israeli diplomat, Speaker of the Knesset, Minister of Police and Minister of Internal Affairs
Zundel Kroizer (1924–2014), rabbi
Walid Khalidi (born 1925), Palestinian historian
Uzi Narkiss (1925–1997), Israeli general and commander of the Israel Defense Forces units in the Central Region during the Six Day War
Rehavam Ze'evi (1926–2001), assassinated Israeli general, historian, founder of the Moledet party, and Minister of Tourism
Yaakov Blau (1929–2013), rabbi

born 1930s

Robert Aumann (born 1930), Israeli-American mathematician and game-theorist, received the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2005 for his work on conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis
Naseer Aruri (1934–2015), Palestinian scholar and activist
Edward Said (1935–2003), Palestinian author and political theorist
A.B. Yehoshua (born 1936), Israeli novelist, essayist, and playwright
Shlomo Aronson (born 1936), Israeli landscape architect
Amos Oz (born 1939) Israeli writer, novelist, and journalist
Reuven Rivlin (born 1939), former Minister of Communications and Speaker of the Knesset, current President of Israel
Ada Yonath (born 1939), Israeli crystallographer best known for her pioneering work on the structure of the ribosome, winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2009

born 1940s

Matan Vilnai (born 1944), Minister of Science, Culture & Sport, Minister of Science and Technology, Minister for Home Front Defense, Ambassador to China, IDF Major General
Makram Khoury (born 1945), Israeli Arab actor and winner of the Israel Prize
Ehud Olmert (born 1945), former Mayor of Jerusalem and Prime-Minister of Israel
Mahmoud al-Zahar (born 1945), co-founder of Hamas
Yoni Netanyahu (1946–1976), commander of Sayeret Matkal; killed in action during Operation Entebbe
Nahman Shai (born 1946), Israeli journalist, Deputy Speaker of the Knesset, IDF spokesman
Dan Meridor (born 1947) Israeli Minister of Justice, Minister of Finance, and Deputy Prime Minister

born 1950s

Munib Younan (born 1950), president of the Lutheran World Federation
Mustafa Barghouti (born 1954), Palestinian physician, activist, and PLO politician
Anat Hoffman (born 1954), Israeli activist and director of Women of the Wall
Francis Martin O'Donnell, former United Nations diplomat, Ambassador of Sovereign Military Order of Malta, author
Saeb Erekat (born 1955), Palestinian negotiator of the Oslo Accords with Israel
Sallai Meridor (born 1955), Israeli Ambassador to the United States, Chairman of the Jewish Agency for Israel and the World Zionist Organization
Jamal Dajani (born 1957), Palestinian-American journalist and producer, co-founder of Arab Talk Radio
Uri Malmilian (born 1957), Israeli soccer player with most appearances for Beitar Jerusalem F.C.
Eli Ohana (born 1957), all-time top-scorer for Israel's Beitar Jerusalem F.C.

born since 1960

Natalie Portman (born 1981), Israeli-American actress, lived in Jerusalem until she was three years old

Twin towns and sister cities
See also: List of Israeli twin towns and sister cities

Czech Republic Prague, Czech Republic[413]
Japan Ayabe, Japan[414]
Morocco Fez, Morocco[citation needed] (by PA, not Israel)
United States New York City, United States (since 1993)[415][416]

Partner city

France Marseille, France[citation needed]

See also

Jerusalem emblem.pngJerusalem portal Flag of Israel.svgIsrael portal Flag of Palestine.svgPalestine portal Star of David.svgJudaism portal P christianity.svgChristianity portal Allah-green.svgIslam portal

List of mayors of Jerusalem
List of places in Jerusalem
List of East Jerusalem locations
List of songs about Jerusalem
Quds in Persian literature
Walls of Jerusalem
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yanis la chouette



Nombre de messages : 5980
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr
Date d'inscription : 12/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: Déclaration Balfour de 1917, Scorpion du désert et Y'becca   Mar 14 Mar à 11:57

Notes
i. ^ In other languages: official Arabic in Israel: أورشليم القدس Ûrshalîm-Al Quds (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); Ancient Greek: Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; Classical Armenian: Երուսաղէմ Erusałēm.
ii. ^ Jerusalem is the capital under Israeli law. The presidential residence, government offices, supreme court and parliament (Knesset) are located there. The State of Palestine (according to the Basic Law of Palestine, Title One: Article 3) regards Jerusalem as its capital.[417] The UN and most countries do not recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital, taking the position that the final status of Jerusalem is pending future negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority. Most countries maintain their embassies in Tel Aviv and its suburbs or suburbs of Jerusalem, such as Mevaseret Zion (see CIA Factbook and "Map of Israel" (PDF). (319 KB)) See Positions on Jerusalem for more information.
iii. ^ Statistics regarding the demographics of Jerusalem refer to the unified and expanded Israeli municipality, which includes the pre-1967 Israeli and Jordanian municipalities as well as several additional Palestinian villages and neighborhoods to the northeast. Some of the Palestinian villages and neighborhoods have been relinquished to the West Bank de facto by way of the Israeli West Bank barrier,[297] but their legal statuses have not been reverted.
iv. ^ The website for Jerusalem is available in three languages—Hebrew, English, and Arabic.
v. ^ a b Much of the information regarding King David's conquest of Jerusalem comes from Biblical accounts, but some modern-day historians have begun to give them credit due to a 1993 excavation.[418]
vi. ^ Sources disagree on the timing of the creation of the Pact of Umar (Omar). Whereas some say the Pact originated during Umar's lifetime but was later expanded,[419][420] others say the Pact was created after his death and retroactively attributed to him.[421] Further still, other historians believe the ideas in the Pact pre-date Islam and Umar entirely.[422]
vii. ^ The State of Palestine (according to the Basic Law of Palestine, Title One: Article 3) regards Jerusalem as its capital.[417] But the documents of the PLO's Negotiations Affairs Department (NAD) often refer to East Jerusalem (rather than the whole of Jerusalem) as a future capital, and sometimes as the current capital. One of its 2010 documents, described as "for discussion purposes only", says that Palestine has a '"vision"' for a future in which "East Jerusalem ... shall be the capital of Palestine, and West Jerusalem shall be the capital of Israel",[423] and one of its 2013 documents refers to "Palestine's capital, East Jerusalem", and states that "Occupied East Jerusalem is the natural socio-economic and political center for the future Palestinian state", while also stating that "Jerusalem has always been and remains the political, administrative and spiritual heart of Palestine" and that "The Palestinian acceptance of the 1967 border, which includes East Jerusalem, is a painful compromise".[424]
viii. ^ West Jerusalem comprises approximately one third of the current municipal area of Jerusalem, with East Jerusalem comprising approximately two thirds. On the annexation of East Jerusalem, Israel also incorporated an area of the West Bank into the Jerusalem municipal area which represented more than ten times the area of East Jerusalem under Jordanian rule.[425][426][427]

Le Cancre de Jacques Prévert

Il dit non avec la tête
Mais il dit oui avec le cœur
Il dit oui à ce qu’il aime
Il dit non au professeur
Il est debout
On le questionne
Et tous les problèmes sont posés
Soudain le fou rire le prend
Et il efface tout
Les chiffres et les mots
Les dates et les noms
Les phrases et les pièges
Et malgré les menaces du maître
Sous les huées des enfants prodiges
Avec des craies de toutes les couleurs
Sur le tableau noir du malheur
Il dessine le visage du bonheur.

Art poétique de Paul Verlaine

De la musique avant toute chose,
Et pour cela préfère l'Impair
Plus vague et plus soluble dans l'air,
Sans rien en lui qui pèse ou qui pose.

Il faut aussi que tu n'ailles point
Choisir tes mots sans quelque méprise :

Rien de plus cher que la chanson grise
Où l'Indécis au Précis se joint.

C'est des beaux yeux derrière des voiles,
C'est le grand jour tremblant de midi,
C'est, par un ciel d'automne attiédi,
Le bleu fouillis des claires étoiles !

Car nous voulons la Nuance encor,
Pas la Couleur, rien que la nuance !
Oh ! la nuance seule fiance
Le rêve au rêve et la flûte au cor !

Fuis du plus loin la Pointe assassine,
L'Esprit cruel et le Rire impur,
Qui font pleurer les yeux de l'Azur,
Et tout cet ail de basse cuisine !

Prends l'éloquence et tords-lui son cou !
Tu feras bien, en train d'énergie,
De rendre un peu la Rime assagie.
Si l'on n'y veille, elle ira jusqu'où ?

O qui dira les torts de la Rime ?
Quel enfant sourd ou quel nègre fou
Nous a forgé ce bijou d'un sou
Qui sonne creux et faux sous la lime ?

De la musique encore et toujours !
Que ton vers soit la chose envolée
Qu'on sent qui fuit d'une âme en allée
Vers d'autres cieux à d'autres amours.

Que ton vers soit la bonne aventure
Eparse au vent crispé du matin
Qui va fleurant la menthe et le thym...
Et tout le reste est littérature.

Rapport
de
Y'becca
et de
TAY
La chouette effraie
Revenir en haut Aller en bas
Voir le profil de l'utilisateur http://www.atelier-yannistignard.com
yanis la chouette



Nombre de messages : 5980
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr
Date d'inscription : 12/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: Déclaration Balfour de 1917, Scorpion du désert et Y'becca   Jeu 16 Mar à 11:01

Une nouvelle forme d'expression libre et communication éthique dans l'aspect informatique mais l'attrait du timbre.
Le silence est une source de confusion quand les bruits de l'alentour le couvrent d'une carapace auditive, qui n'est plus sienne.
Tel une lettre sans timbre mais comportant une adresse sera expulsé au profit de lettre vierge comportant des timbres... c'est ainsi que naquit l'aspect premier du bug informatique... Big Chill est ainsi une forme de sauvegarde de l’instinct premier des choses sur l'aspect de Destin établi... L'expansion de l'Univers pourrait continuer indéfiniment dans une configuration de timbre car celui implique un aspect de valeur dans la mémoire, alors que l'adresse peut toujours elle être renvoyé par l'attrait d'un changement de valeur dans l'aspect immobilier, cela est le Big Rip, un scénario catastrophique où l'Univers est détruit en un temps fini.

Univers homogène et isotrope est l'aspect du Timbre sur une enveloppe alors que l'adresse vierge de timbre sur l’enveloppe équivaut à une entropie maximale... Voilà la vision de l'Humanité en terme d'informatique sur l'aspect de propriété d'envoi de formule de politesse d'un lieu A vers un lieu B par l'intermédiaire de satellites géostationnaires... Ainsi, L’hypothèse d’une mort thermique universelle provient des idées de William Thomson, en 1850. Elle résulte de l’extrapolation à l’ensemble de l’univers de la théorie de la thermodynamique, en particulier des considérations sur la perte naturelle d’énergie mécanique, telle qu’elles résultent du premier principe de la thermodynamique.

Pourtant dans un aspect de réel et d'observation sur l'état de Santé de notre communication visuelle, il réside l'aspect de l'éclair que je désigne par cette formule savante: c est la vitesse de la lumière, K / a2 la courbure spatiale, G la constante de gravitation et ρ l'ensemble des densités d'énergie des différentes formes de matière qui emplissent l'univers. La courbure spatiale représente la forme géométrique de l'espace...

Comment définir un espace temps à une enveloppe indiquant une adresse qui n'existe plus quand celle ci ne comporte plus de timbres... Oui, L'expansion de l'Univers pourrait continuer indéfiniment1. Dans ce cas, l'Univers s'étendra et se refroidira, devenant éventuellement trop froid pour abriter la vie. Pour ces raisons, ce scénario est parfois appelé Grand Gel... L'adresse est tout comme le timbre... Bien sur; elle est liée à l'enveloppe... Il fait également allusion au fait qu'il existe... Au contraire d'une enveloppe sans timbre qui ne trouve intérêt que dans le contenu de sa lettre...

Alors certains lettres par absence de Timbres furent détruites: Pourtant dans la conscience de ce crime, un phénoméne apparait pour certaines et certains, il s'agit du Cosmos à expansion d'échelle de C. Johan Masreliez, où il n'y a aucune accélération, la quantité est w Q = − 1 / 3 {\displaystyle w_{\mathrm {Q} }=-1/3} {\displaystyle w_{\mathrm {Q} }=-1/3} exact, ce qui signifie courbure de l'espace-temps. En effet, ces enveloppes était adressées à une fonction de discutions entre deux personnalités de la communication...

Ainsi une Lettre avec ou sans timbre qui comporte une adresse est de l'importance de la densité d'énergie moyenne de l'Univers ainsi que de ses propriétés géométriques, sa courbure spatiale. Interviennent aussi certaines propriétés des différentes formes de matière qui emplissent l'Univers, en particulier leur pression: Qu'elle soit Orale, écrite ou informatique...
L'expansion s'arrête par définition quand le taux d'expansion H est nul. Cela ne peut se produire que si la courbure spatiale est positive ou éventuellement si la densité d'énergie totale devient négative. Cette dernière hypothèse étant a priori peu réaliste, seul le cas d'une courbure spatiale positive est susceptible d'être à l'origine d'un arrêt de l'expansion de l'Univers. Cependant, même si la courbure spatiale est positive, il n'y a pas nécessairement d'arrêt de l'expansion : il faut pour cela que la densité d'énergie totale décroisse suffisamment vite pour que le membre de droite de l'équation ci-dessous s'annule.

Ainsi, Le taux d'expansion de l'Univers, noté H, ne se résume pas à une lettre mais l'importance de transmettre une lettre d'un expéditeur à un destinataire équivaut à cette formule de vie que représente La Vie, la Force et l'Amour. Le sens, même du survivre dans Le destin de l'Univers... On ne sait jamais comment le destinataire répondra à la lettre reçu... Univers homogène et isotrope est l'aspect du Timbre sur une enveloppe alors que l'adresse vierge de timbre sur l’enveloppe équivaut à une entropie maximale...

Ecrit de
TAY
La chouette effraie
ou
Monsieur Tignard Yanis

_________________
Kounak le chat....



En linguistique et en grammaire, la personne représente le trait grammatical décrivant le rôle qu'occupent les acteurs d'un dialogue (émetteur, récepteur, référents extérieurs au dialogue). Les verbes, les déterminants et pronoms personnels, principalement, sont concernés par la distinction de personne. Les noms peuvent aussi l'être, surtout dans les cas de possession indiquée par un suffixe personnel. En celtique, de plus, les prépositions peuvent aussi se fléchir selon la personne.

Distinctions fondamentales

Ces distinctions de personnes se retrouvent dans toutes les langues connaissant des distinctions de personnes.

On oppose trois personnes :

la première correspond au locuteur (l'émetteur), à celui qui s'exprime directement : en français, elle pourra être représentée par des pronoms comme je, moi, mon ;
la seconde est l'interlocuteur (le récepteur) : tu, toi, ton ;
la troisième est toute personne ou chose dont on parle et qui ne participe pas au dialogue : il / elle / on, lui / elle, son.

Ces personnes varient en nombre :

1re personne du pluriel → un ensemble de personnes auxquelles appartient le locuteur : « nous » (en tant que groupe dans lequel l'interlocuteur est ou non compris ; voir plus bas à « Nous inclusif / exclusif ») ;
2e personne du pluriel → un ensemble des personnes (présentes ou non) auxquelles s'adresse le locuteur : « vous » ;
3e personne du pluriel → un ensemble de personnes ou de choses dont on parle : ils / elles, eux.

Analyse d'Émile Benveniste

Dans son ouvrage Problèmes de linguistique générale 1 Chapitre XVIII Structure des relations de personne dans le verbe et Chapitre XX La nature des pronoms, Émile Benveniste analyse séparément la personne stricte (je, tu, il au singulier) et la personne amplifiée (nous, vous, ils au pluriel) car le pluriel pronominal ne fonctionne pas de la même manière que le pluriel nominal (des GN).

Au singulier dans le discours, le « je » présuppose toujours un « tu », son allocutaire, je/tu forment alors un couple réuni par une corrélation de subjectivité ayant toujours un référent unique, interchangeable et actualisable par exemple le « je » qui désigne celui qui parle p. 252"instance de je comme référent, et instance de discours contenant je, comme référé" est à la fois réflexif puisque unique et orienté vers l'énonciateur de son propre discours. Benveniste appelle indicateur les embrayeurs personnels qui renvoient à l'acte d'énonciation. Ce qui fait qu'il y ait p. 229 un « désaccord entre la 3e personne et les deux premières » puisque celle-ci est non réflexive et se réfère à chaque fois soit à une personne différente, soit à un segment du discours, soit à tout autre objet du discours, et peut même soit p. 231 élever « l'interlocuteur au-dessus de la condition de personne et de la relation d'homme à homme » ou désigner une forme impersonnelle, et par le fait que dans les langues la forme verbale qui la sous-entend porte souvent un morphème zéro ou toute autre flexion l'y opposant aux deux premières, on peut suggérer que la forme pronominale « il » correspond à une non-personne.

p. 235 « D'une manière générale, la personne verbale au pluriel exprime une personne amplifiée et diffuse. Le »nous" annexe au « je » une globalité indistincte d'autres personnes". « Nous » n'est alors pas une multiplication de plusieurs « je » identiques mais une jonction entre le « je » et le « non-je » ce qui lui permet d'avoir 3 référents possibles: le « nous »(moi+vous) est un pronom pluriel inclusif puisque par rapport à « eux » le « non-je » inclut le « vous » et le « vous » étant en position d'allocutaire il y a une corrélation de subjectivité entre les 2 personnes. Dans une langue comme l'algokin(fox) ce « nous » possède même un morphème flexionnel de deuxième personne (ke-gunana, ke- ⇒ toi); le « nous »(moi+eux) qui est un pronom pluriel exclusif puisque par rapport à « eux », le « non-je » exclut le « vous » et le « eux » désignant une non-personne met en avant la même « corrélation de personne » qui oppose le je/tu(personne) à la non-personne(il); et le « nous » indifférencié que l'on dénomme pronom générique puisqu'il s'agit d'un « je » plus diffus et non multiplié. Nous avons un « vous » collectif et un « vous » de politesse et quant au « ils » la pluralisation de la non-personne peut être soit régulière(il+il+il) comme pour les GN soit irrégulière lorsque p. 235"elle exprime la généralité indécise du on". Donc p. 235 « Le pluriel est facteur d'illimitation, non de multiplication ».
Formes impersonnelles

Quand un terme ou une construction dénotant normalement une personne ne l'indique pas, on parle d'une forme impersonnelle.

Il existe en français trois modes impersonnels :

l'infinitif
le participe
le gérondif

Ces modes en effet ne s'accordent pas en personne mais en nombre et/ou en genre.

Il existe aussi des tournures impersonnelles se présentant comme des formes personnelles.

en français, ce rôle est tenu par la troisième personne du singulier masculin : il faut, il neige, il me semble, voire il y a. Ni on ni elle ne peuvent s’y substituer. On retrouve là l’origine des genres grammaticaux, qui n'ont rien de sexué : il ne marque pas le masculin mais le genre non marqué.
en latin (au passif impersonnel) : videtur (« il est vu » ou « on voit » ou encore « il semble »).

Distinctions annexes

Ces distinctions sont propres à certaines langues ou familles de langues. Un bon nombre concerne principalement les marques de politesse.
Possession

Les déterminants possessifs dépendent de la personne. Leur fonctionnement, cependant, varie d'une langue à l'autre. En français, par exemple, les possessifs s'accordent en personne avec le possesseur, et en genre et en nombre avec l'objet possédé (dans « la queue du chat », « la queue » est le possédé, « le chat » le possesseur, dans « mon chat », « je » non exprimé est le possesseur, « chat » le possédé). Ainsi, on dit « ma pomme » mais « mon chat ».

L'anglais, cependant, ne distingue pas le genre au moyen des possessifs sauf à la troisième personne. Cette fois-ci, ils s'accordent au genre du possesseur : his apple « sa pomme (à lui) », her apple « sa pomme (à elle) », its apple « sa pomme (à un inanimé, comme un arbre) ».

Dans nombre de langues, comme le turc ou encore les langues sémitiques, il n'existe pas de déterminants possessifs mais un jeu de suffixes personnels dérivés des désinences verbales. En sorte, on assiste à une forme de conjugaison du nom. Par exemple, en turc les suffixes personnels verbaux sont :

1re personne (sg. / pl.) : -im / -iz ;
2e personne : -sin / -siniz ;
3e personne : -Ø / -diler ou lerdi.

Les suffixes possessifs leur sont proches :

1re : -im / -imiz ;
2e : -in / -iniz ;
3e : - i / -leri.

Ainsi, sur göz, « œil », on obtient (les voyelles s'adaptant par harmonie vocalique) : göz-üm (« mon œil »), göz-ün (« ton œil »), göz-ü (« son œil »), etc.

L'arabe fait de même, bien que ses suffixes possessifs (ou pronoms enclitiques) ne soient pas autant raccordés aux désinences verbales qu'en turc :
Personne Singulier Pluriel Duel
1re -(n)ī -nā ─
2e (masc.) -ka -kum -kumā
2e (fém.) -ki -kunna
3e (masc.) -hu -hum -humā
3e (fém.) -hā -hunna

On remarque de plus que ces suffixes dépendent du genre du possesseur, sauf à la première personne.
Tutoiement et vouvoiement
Article détaillé : Tutoiement et vouvoiement.

La distinction T(u)-V(ous) ─ ou « distinction entre le tutoiement et le voussoiement / vouvoiement » ─ est un concept grammatical et linguistique familier aux locuteurs des langues romanes, germaniques (sauf dans l'anglais courant) et slaves.

Il s'agit d'une opposition entre deux deuxièmes personnes (servant à s'adresser à un interlocuteur), le premier (tutoiement : « tu, te, toi, ton », etc.) utilisé pour les proches ou dans un registre de langue familier (voire insultant par sa familiarité) et le second (vouvoiement : « vous, votre ») pour les personnes auxquelles on doit un certain respect, ce qui peut comprendre les inconnus, les supérieurs, les personnes âgées, etc.
Autres expressions personnelles de la politesse
« Sa » majesté

Quelques faits notables se présentent dans certaines langues quand il s'agit de s'adresser à un très haut dirigeant ou dignitaire (un roi, un pape, un empereur, etc.) appartenant au clergé ou à la noblesse.

On pourra en effet employer une troisième personne du singulier précédée d'expressions comme Sa Majesté ou Son Altesse, appellatifs dont le genre n'importe pas (on peut appeler un homme « Sa Majesté ») et que l'on retrouve quand on parle de ces personnes :

« Son Altesse désire-t-elle une tasse de thé ? « Monseigneur prendra-t-il une verveine ? » ;
« on aurait vu Son Altesse la reine M.* de G.* boire une tasse de thé en compagnie de Monseigneur V., lequel aurait pris une verveine ».

Parfois, c'est un déterminant possessif de 2e personne polie qui s'utilise : « Que désire Votre Altesse ? ».

Les mêmes catégories de personnes peuvent aussi s'exprimer à la troisième personne (en plus, souvent, d'une forme de pluriel de majesté) : « Nous désirerions que vous laissiez Son Altesse tranquille » (où « Son Altesse » désigne bien le locuteur, « nous », mis pour « je »), « il plaît à Sa Majesté d'agir ainsi ».
Pluriel / Singulier de majesté / de modestie
Article détaillé : Nous de majesté.

Dans plusieurs langues européennes, dont le français, on peut employer à la place de la 1re personne du singulier un pluriel marquant la majesté : rois et dignitaires, institutions, administration peuvent s'exprimer ainsi. En français, les mots dépendant de ce pronom pluriel peuvent rester au singulier. Ainsi : « Nous sommes fier de vous » pour « Je suis fier de vous » (dit par un roi à l'un de ses sujets, par exemple). Le catalan, quant à lui, possède un pronom archaïque nós de première personne du pluriel servant aux dignitaires et rois. On parle quelquefois aussi de pluriel d'emphase.

Au contraire, dans la langue latine, il n'est pas rare que l'auteur s'exprime aussi au pluriel, mais ici dans un but supposé de modestie, quand il parle de lui. L'usage est resté dans la langue soutenue et scolaire : « Dans la première partie de cette dissertation, nous montrerons que Cicéron... » pour « Dans la première partie de cette dissertation, je montrerai que Cicéron... ». C'est un pluriel similaire qu'on trouve dans la littérature moderne pour des personnages ─ souvent féminins ─ voulant atténuer par modestie ou par réserve leurs propos[réf. nécessaire].

Enfin, le français utilise outre nous pour la première personne du pluriel on, normalement pronom indéfini de 3e personne du singulier (remplaçable par quelqu'un : on vient = quelqu'un vient). L'emploi de on en remplacement de nous (seulement sujet) est attendu dans les registres courant à vulgaire. Nous, dans un contexte courant devant des interlocuteurs auxquels on n'a pas à témoigner une certaine distance, peut même sembler pédant. Les accords se font au masculin singulier ou, par syllepse, au féminin, au pluriel, etc., selon les cas :

forme soutenue : nous sommes allé(e)s au cinéma, où Jean nous a retrouvé(e)s ;
forme courante : on est allé / est allés (syllepse pour le nombre) / est allées (syllepse de nombre et de genre si on renvoie à un groupe de femmes) au cinéma, où Jean nous (remplacement par on non sujet impossible) a retrouvé(e)s.

Dans la langue courante écrite, par correction, on n'emploie normalement pas on en remplacement de nous alors que nous peut être très rarement employé dans les faits. On peut conclure en disant que c'est bien un « singulier de modestie ». L'utilisation d'un terme ou d'une expression normalement à la 3e personne à une autre personne n'est pas rare voire fréquente dans les formes de vouvoiement (cf. espagnol usted, allemand Sie).
Usages atypiques en français

On entend parfois, notamment de la part de commerçants, l'usage de la 3e personne du singulier au lieu de la 2e :[réf. nécessaire]

Qu'est-ce qu’il prendra ? Un petit blanc, comme d'habitude ?
Ah, si c'est la route de Paris qu’elle cherche, alors faut qu’elle fasse demi-tour.
[…] L'épicier dit : « bonjour il va bien ce matin, qu'est ce qu'il lui fallait ? », alors « il dit » qu'il voudrait des piles. […] Pierre Desproges, « Les Piles » in Textes de scène, Seuil 1997

Cet emploi est généralement ressenti comme très familier, voire impoli, ou encore ironique.

On peut aussi entendre la 1re personne du pluriel (au lieu de vous), suggérant une certaine complicité :

Alors, Monsieur Martin, comment nous sentons-nous ce matin ?

Coréen, japonais et vietnamien

Le coréen, le japonais et le vietnamien (mais pas exclusivement ces langues) partagent tous les trois une particularité importante, celle d'exprimer grammaticalement et lexicalement de manière très précise les rapports sociaux et hiérarchiques, comme si elles possédaient un grand nombre de personnes, chacune renvoyant à un système de respect hiérarchique. En fait, dans ces langues l'expression de la politesse peut remplacer celle de la personne.

Le coréen utilise deux « modes » de politesse et sept registres de langue exprimés grammaticalement (et non seulement lexicalement) permettant de construire pour un verbe donné quatorze paradigmes possibles (tous n'étant pas fréquemment utilisés). Les modes de politesse (neutre ~ poli) concernent ce dont on parle et sont indiqués par un choix lexical (à la manière de l'opposition entre chaussure et godasse), la suffixation (comme pour blond ~ blondasse). À la différence du français, les verbes reçoivent une marque, un infixe -si-, pour passer au mode poli, sans forcément changer de radical (comme vivre ~ vivoter si le principe était systématique) et s'étendent aux verbes et adjectifs, qui reçoivent des marques spécifiques.

Les sept registres, quant à eux, indiquent le respect qu'on témoigne à l'interlocuteur (à l'image de notre vouvoiement). Il est important pour les locuteurs de respecter l'expression grammaticale du point de vue et de la politesse, chaque situation de communication entraînant un mode et un registre particulier (entre inconnus, avec un supérieur, entre collègues, entre amis proches, etc.). Tout écart est connoté et témoigne d'une agression verbale, d'une marque de mépris, de pédantisme (ou d'une erreur si le locuteur est visiblement étranger). Il est cependant possible aux interlocuteurs de changer de mode de politesse en le demandant, de même que les francophones peuvent demander à utiliser le tutoiement mutuel. Les pronoms personnels suivent évidemment le même principe : chaque gradation dans la politesse demande un pronom particulier.

Le japonais suit des principes très proches (double lexique, conjugaisons variant en politesse) et se montre surtout étonnant quant à sa richesse en pronoms personnels. En effet, il en existe tellement, quelle que soit la personne, qu'on peut les considérer comme plus que des pronoms, de véritables noms portant leurs connotations. Chacun de ces noms concerne une personne donnée et indique le point de vue du locuteur, réel ou imposé par les conventions, sur la personne concernée par le pronom, son interlocuteur, lui-même.

Par exemple, pour la seule première personne, « je/moi », on peut compter :

générique soutenu : 私 (わたし) watashi ;
locuteur femme donnant d'elle l'image attendue d'une personne charmante, mignonne : あたし atashi, あっし asshi(rare) ou あたい atai (rare) ;
locuteur âgé : 儂 ou 私 (わし) washi ;
locuteur homme, registre neutre mais pas assez soutenu dans certains cas : 僕 (ぼく) boku (nom signifiant « serviteur ») ;
locuteur homme voulant donner de lui une image virile et arrogante : 俺 (おれ) ore.

Note : il va de soi qu'employer un terme peu soutenu dans un contexte qui ne s'y prête pas pour parler de soi ne signifie pas que l'on se dénigre mais que l'on dénigre l'interlocuteur.

La gradation dans la politesse s'opère, par exemple, en passant de boku à watashi. S'il faut être encore plus poli, il convient d'éviter les pronoms pour utiliser des périphrases comme 我が社 (わがしゃ) waga sha, « mon humble société » ou 此方 (こちら) kochira, « cette direction (près de moi) ». On fait bien sûr de même avec la seconde personne.
Nous inclusif / exclusif
Article détaillé : « nous » exclusif et inclusif.

La 1re personne du pluriel peut désigner deux groupes différents dans lesquels se trouve le locuteur :

un groupe comprenant le locuteur (je), l'interlocuteur (tu) ainsi qu'éventuellement d'autres personnes ;
un groupe composé du locuteur et d'autres personnes mais sans l'interlocuteur.

On parle dans le premier cas de « nous inclusif » (il inclut l'interlocuteur), dans le second de « nous exclusif » (il l'exclut). Si le français ne permet pas de distinguer clairement ces deux nous, le mandarin le fait de manière plus ou moins précise avec un premier pronom non marqué, 我們/我们 wǒmen, « nous » et un second plus inclusif, 咱 zán ou 咱們/咱们 zánmen, « nous (et toi) ». On pourra ainsi préciser : 你們是女子﹐ 我們是男人﹐ 咱(們)都是人/你们是女子, 我们是男人, 咱(们)都是人 (Nǐmen shi nǚzi, wǒmen shi nánrén, zánmen dōu shi rén.), soit « Vous êtes des femmes, nous sommes des hommes, (vous et) nous tous sommes des êtres humains ».

D'autres langues et des pidgins suivent ce principe, parmi lesquelles (inclusif ~ exclusif) :

le guarani : ñande ~ ore ;
le tagalog : tayo ~ kami ;
le nuer (langue nilo-saharienne) (transcription API) : [kɔ́ːn] ~ [kɔ̀n]. Ces deux pronoms s'opposent à [kɔːn], forme de duel servant quand seuls le locuteur et son interlocuteur sont concernés ;
le vietnamien: chúng ta ~ chúng tôi ;
en tok pisin, le système est similaire : mipela (nous exclusif pluriel : « moi et eux ») ~ mitupela (nous exclusif duel : « moi et lui / elle ») ~ yumitupela (nous inclusif duel : « moi et toi »).
Le Poular, La langue peule (encore appelée fula, fulfulde ou pulaar) en Afrique de l'Ouest: [en] ~ [men].

Notes et références

Cet article est partiellement ou en totalité issu de l'article intitulé « Pronom personnel en discours » (voir la liste des auteurs).


Articles connexes

Tutoiement et vouvoiement
« nous » exclusif et inclusif
Nombre (grammaire)
Genre (grammaire)
Trait grammatical
Verbe défectif

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Date d'inscription : 12/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: Déclaration Balfour de 1917, Scorpion du désert et Y'becca   Mar 28 Mar à 9:57

Le Monde du Silence, Le phare de Y'becca et Police la Coatie

L'Homme arrête sa réflexion; il ouvre sa fenêtre
pour laisser l'air pénétrer la pièce...
Il laisse ses ides et idées, s'envoler et
s'évaporer devant un pot de fleur:
Il s’étend sur le parquet... L'homme
fixe le plafond et replonge dans le calme.

Une femme traverse son esprit
et puis un désir de reconquête enflamme
le cœur du déchu... Et puis alors le masculin
du désir s'éveille dans le ventre de cet homme,
qui devient "cette homme"

Le Clans des mouettes se prononce différemment
du Clan des mouettes... L'Homme pousse un profond
soupir et fixe l'Horloge... Un rendez vous est prévu
sur ce sens de l'aiguille entre le masculin et le féminin;
entre le pluriel et le singulier ainsi Tel le décrit Platon
dans la caverne; l'orthographe assimile l'hermaphrodisme
par le son et l’ambiguïté du temps...

Il lui reste dix minutes à se reposer... Puis deux ou même
trois minutes après, il décide de quitter son appartement...
Car, l'avance est une source de tranquillité... Il se reflete
dans un miroir qu'il appelle photographie; son ombre se mélange
à la substance créative de nuages. Fier d'avoir déjouer
pour un instant, la prophétie du cabinet noir et de l'Homme
pressé. Oui, il savoure d'avoir traversé les rives du Jourdain;

Un nouveau baptême enflamme son cœur. Il prie pour les ombres
et les vivants qui accompagne ces ombres. il décrit l'adversité
à venir mais celle ci n'est que soulagement devant le triomphe
de l'espérance Libérée... Le Testament n'est qu'un aspect
de son héritage; il laisse l'empreinte d'un art sur l'obscurantisme.
Dans le tréfonds d'un puit, il est l’âne qui est remonté de la
poussière qu'on lui jetait.

Une femme traverse son esprit
et puis un désir de reconquête enflamme
le cœur du déchu... Et puis alors le masculin
du désir s'éveille dans le ventre de cet homme,
qui devient "cette homme".

Souviens toi d'elle, cette douce vierge apeuré par le sang et la douleur
mais ivre de marcher et de courir, défiant l'Horizon de son arrogance.
elle est loin d'être morte dans le fait de grandir, devenue femme qu'elle
est une douleur qui ne s'estompe pas: celui du Siège. Oui, Marcher.
Souviens toi de toi, ce jeune libertaire qui voulait devenir
archéologue des pierres et qui devient comme
L’Anticonstitutionnellement. L'Inconstitutionnellement se mue en jalousie
et en prophétie antique sur le progrès et la persécution...

Moi, j'ai évolué dans une forme de sympathie ayant une forme de compassion;
ces paraphrases de discours sont les premières étapes qui conduisent les
hommes physiques vers l’exéma et qui les éloigne du sens de morale,
puis de pardon. La Constitution morale est tout comme une goutte d'eau.
Elle s’avère selon le caractère être une source d'océan et pour d'autres,
un chuchotement conduisant à la folie... Construite est ma conscience...

Ecrit de
Monsieur Tignard Yanis

_________________
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Nombre de messages : 5980
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Date d'inscription : 12/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: Déclaration Balfour de 1917, Scorpion du désert et Y'becca   Ven 31 Mar à 9:23

L'Homme arrête sa réflexion; il ouvre sa fenêtre
pour laisser l'air pénétrer la pièce...
Il laisse ses ides et idées, s'envoler et
s'évaporer devant un pot de fleur:
Il s’étend sur le parquet... L'homme
fixe le plafond et replonge dans le calme.

Une femme traverse son esprit
et puis un désir de reconquête enflamme
le cœur du déchu... Et puis alors le masculin
du désir s'éveille dans le ventre de cet homme,
qui devient "cette homme"

Le Clans des mouettes se prononce différemment
du Clan des mouettes... L'Homme pousse un profond
soupir et fixe l'Horloge... Un rendez vous est prévu
sur ce sens de l'aiguille entre le masculin et le féminin;
entre le pluriel et le singulier ainsi Tel le décrit Platon
dans la caverne; l'orthographe assimile l'hermaphrodisme
par le son et l’ambiguïté du temps...

Il lui reste dix minutes à se reposer... Puis deux ou même
trois minutes après, il décide de quitter son appartement...
Car, l'avance est une source de tranquillité... Il se reflete
dans un miroir qu'il appelle photographie; son ombre se mélange
à la substance créative de nuages. Fier d'avoir déjouer
pour un instant, la prophétie du cabinet noir et de l'Homme
pressé. Oui, il savoure d'avoir traversé les rives du Jourdain;

Un nouveau baptême enflamme son cœur. Il prie pour les ombres
et les vivants qui accompagne ces ombres. il décrit l'adversité
à venir mais celle ci n'est que soulagement devant le triomphe
de l'espérance Libérée... Le Testament n'est qu'un aspect
de son héritage; il laisse l'empreinte d'un art sur l'obscurantisme.
Dans le tréfonds d'un puit, il est l’âne qui est remonté de la
poussière qu'on lui jetait.

Une femme traverse son esprit
et puis un désir de reconquête enflamme
le cœur du déchu... Et puis alors le masculin
du désir s'éveille dans le ventre de cet homme,
qui devient "cette homme".

Souviens toi d'elle, cette douce vierge apeuré par le sang et la douleur
mais ivre de marcher et de courir, défiant l'Horizon de son arrogance.
elle est loin d'être morte dans le fait de grandir, devenue femme qu'elle
est une douleur qui ne s'estompe pas: celui du Siège. Oui, Marcher.
Souviens toi de toi, ce jeune libertaire qui voulait devenir
archéologue des pierres et qui devient comme
L’Anticonstitutionnellement. L'Inconstitutionnellement se mue en jalousie
et en prophétie antique sur le progrès et la persécution...

Moi, j'ai évolué dans une forme de sympathie ayant une forme de compassion;
ces paraphrases de discours sont les premières étapes qui conduisent les
hommes physiques vers l’exéma et qui les éloigne du sens de morale,
puis de pardon. La Constitution morale est tout comme une goutte d'eau.
Elle s’avère selon le caractère être une source d'océan et pour d'autres,
un chuchotement conduisant à la folie... Construite est ma conscience...

Ecrit de
Monsieur Tignard Yanis

http://leclandesmouettes.bbflash.net/t28-women-and-countering-violent-extremism

L'éclair et le pigeon.


C'était un jeudi, à librairie Privat, rue des arts, où
je décidais d'acheter un livre intitullé Chagall et la
période russe !.
C'est alors que j'entendit un frisson et me retournant
dèrrière mon dos! C'est là que je vis un pigeon
assomée où plûtot fou de la dernière heure.
Il était à terre et frappait des ailes sans voler !
Alors, je le pris dans les mains, et je vis qu'il
saignait un peu !

Fût il foudroyé par une guêpe, une abeille... ou par
un virus !

Le piegeon étant mort, et aprés l'avoir embrasser je
suis parti vers la Garonne.

Alors son cercueil fût le fleuve des loups ! Les
nuages.
Alors j'entendit un corbeau et un goeland emportait la
carcasse du mort
vers le cimetière: L'eau est tout comme le plaisir
abreuvant un corps de raison et de douleurs.
-------------------------------------------------------
Le chacal et le renard.

"Elle avait raison nous avons sombré dans la
barbarie." dit le renard.
"Rien n'est encore perdu !" réponds le chacal et à sa
manière, il baisse les yeux vers ses pattes
antérieurs.

"cette mort vient de nous, alors que nul ne peut
échapper à son jugement!" dit le renard.
"Nul pourtant n'a de réponse mais je concerve ma
foi.!" dira le chacal.

Dans les plumes de chacun nous avons ressenti le
plaisir d'autrui.

-------------------------------------------------------

Fables d'aujourd'hui.


Ludivine et le canari
"-Ludivine."
"Canari."
"Veux tu m'offrir cette main."
"Non."
"Le cancer... je parle de l'autre..."dit le canari.
"Mais, tu parles."
"Le serpent est vivant Ludivine la blanche."
"La vipére n'est pas le térrorisme."dit la chatte.
"Tu souffres." demande le canari.
"Enervé..." fait Ludivine la chatte blanche.
-------------------------------------------------------
Croaw-croaw, l'ancien corbeau.

"Mais qu'en est-il devant l'homme."
"Corbeau."
"Cassandre tu portes le poids, et tu devra nous donner
l'envie d' aller défendre ce qui est notre valeur:
Yafo."
"La chouette éffraie, je suis faible corbeau et elle
va reprendre le pacte de l'union et elle est prète à
défendre des hontes que se sont livré Jaël et Sisara
dans l'ancien temps."
"La nature et TAY savent la douleur mais il est des
coeurs à sauver, à défendre et à aimer: Toute femme
n'est pas une espionne, par Yahvé celui qui est
Allah."
"Protége le, corbeau."
"Par les racines de mes ancetres, ma fille Nicosie
sera là et lui donnera le plaisir de s'unir dans la
joie avec un autre corbeau.
Nous ne sommes pas un détail, Cassandre chouette
d'égypte;nous avons le fait d'être."
"Croaw-croaw, L'olivier est une graine devenant par
les années un grand arbre comme le cèdre et chacuns."
-------------------------------------------------------
La tourterelle: envoyé à khatami@president.ir,
nagaliew@yahoo.fr,vice.president@whitehouse.gov

Elle pousse un soupir. Elle s'envole et quelle
sensation de voler sous la pluie.

La tourterelle se pose alors dans un jardin et murmure
alors des notes


La petite fille et sa mére voient athèna la chatte
bleue

" Oh... regarde...Le chat." dit la petite fille.
"Oh...Il est beau, il est tout bleu." fait la mére.

Athéna les regarde amuser et s'en va rentrer chez ses
filles.
-------------------------------------------------------
Les mouettes.

"Heu" dit le corbeau.

" En poste,..." réponds le goeland.

Au loin de ses nuptiaux, Nagalïèw ressent l'amour des
saisons:

Eole cet albatros est là...

Dans la garonne, la nature a construit ses iles et
seront faire face au lit Du fleuve.
-------------------------------------------------------
Poéme pour prisonniers sur Mer Morte.

au coeur d'un lac, ainsi est l'histoire: L'eau
s'évapore laissant place au sable de s'éparpiller dans
le clair obscur de nos yeux...

Certes sont...
Est là...
derrière...

Le temps rappellant le temps.
La science appelant la science

Certes sont.
Est là.
Derrière.Elle disparaitra un jour,
Sans gré et sans force.
Elle demeura Mer Morte.

Certes sont
Est là,
Derrière.
-------------------------------------------------------




C’est les plus mauvais mots. Et, pourtant nous pouvons
choisir.

Oui a la grève et non a l’esclavage. Je t’embrasse le
service public.

A l’appel des verbes, qui pourrait contenir, la parole
n’est pas de contenir.

Mouettes sont dévorés par les renards ; finis n’est
pas finir.

2ieme strophe.

O cœurs ravagés, par temps et virus, celui des filles
de l’ogre méchant voulant dévorer.

Alléluia, o mon peuple, me voilà dans la lassitude des
plus grand âges : je le peux.

Comment ceux qui n’ont, plus le goût des plus grands
affamer des pieux.

Les vaches sont là et mangent des foins. Coquin a été
l’être des absorbés : Arborer.

3ieme des
remarques.

Ils se sont élevés dans le cri des plus grandes
douleurs. Ces hommes, épris de connaissance,

Connurent la joie d’être une couverture. Par le dieu,
les concrets affirment dans les aisances.
-------------------------------------------------------
« Elle chante…bien sur qu’elle chante…elle ose malgré…
oh, elle va voir.

Cette enfant n’a pas le goût de l’obéissance. Elle vit
dans son univers. » ; la femme se dirige

vers la chambre de l’enfant. Elle grimpe par
l’escalier. Celui qui la ramène vers ses longues

années de service. Dame Julie entends toujours des
airs de musique provenant de la chambre

de la jeune fille. Il faut savoir oser, et cette
enfant ne dispose pas de la liberté. Elle aime jouer

de son piano, mais elle délaisse sa grammaire. Il n’y
a rien de bien original sauf que cette

enfant est l’héritière.

Dame Julie frappe à la porte et la musique,
alors s’interrompt :


« Mademoiselle… Vous m’avez désobéi… Vous délaissez la
grammaire, je veux vous dire !

Vous avez utilisé votre charme et le dos tourné, vous
avez … Mademoiselle… ! » : Dame

Julie est en pleurs mais la jeune fille lui répond :

« Dame Julie, ma mère sera satisfaite
de mon travail. Il est moins bâclé. Je suis

chagrinée. J’ai si peur d’être frapper pour une
nouvelle désobéissance, dame Julie. » ;

l’enfant est vraiment bouleversé, elle ne sait que lui
dire ses mots :

« une nouvelle lecture, dame Julie ;
ainsi, j’observerai l’orthographe. »

« Mademoiselle, j’en ai assez de
vous entendre hurler sous les fouets de la

punition. Votre père et votre mère attache une
importance réelle à votre éducation. Je suis si

faible. Je n’ai pas eu la chance d’apprendre à écrire
; ces devoirs ne sont pas bâclés,

mademoiselle. » réponds dame Julie.

« bien sur qu’il y a des erreurs, le
parfait est d’apprendre ses nouvelles règles.

Je vous assure que mon cœur est de jouer car je serai
battue : Ils sont ainsi. »

« Mademoiselle » répond dame Julie.

« Je ne faisait que chanter, dame
julie. »

« Vous avez désobéie, mademoiselle.
»

Quand les parents arrivèrent, ils demandèrent si dame
Julie avait chanté, Dame Julie répondit

Qu’elle voulait savoir si la petite fille avait bien
travaillé son écriture et sa grammaire.

Après quelques minutes, ils reviennent pour dire la
chose la plus merveilleuse qui soit

Pour Dame Julie : Ils sont fiers…

Alors, elle comprit que la petite fille, elle comprit
sa faiblesse : Elle prétendit avoir chanter.

Dame Julie alors baissa la tête et les parents riaient
: le temps donne ses fruits, Dame Julie.
----------------------------------------------------------------

Showcased at the center of this NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image is an emission-line star known as IRAS 12196-6300.

Located just under 2,300 light-years from Earth, this star displays prominent emission lines, meaning that the star’s light, dispersed into a spectrum, shows up as a rainbow of colors marked with a characteristic pattern of dark and bright lines. The characteristics of these lines, when compared to the “fingerprints” left by particular atoms and molecules, can be used to reveal IRAS 12196-6300’s chemical composition.

Under 10 million years old and not yet burning hydrogen at its core, unlike the sun, this star is still in its infancy. Further evidence of IRAS 12196-6300’s youth is provided by the presence of reflection nebulae. These hazy clouds, pictured floating above and below IRAS 12196-6300, are created when light from a star reflects off a high concentration of nearby dust, such as the dusty material still remaining from IRAS 12196-6300’s formation.

Text credit: European Space Agency
Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, Acknowledgement: Judy Schmidt

Last Updated: March 4, 2016
Editor: Ashley Morrow

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MessageSujet: Re: Déclaration Balfour de 1917, Scorpion du désert et Y'becca   Ven 14 Avr à 8:11

Title Δοκιμή λέιζερ στην ESA
Released 13/04/2017 9:23 am
Copyright ESA-–Anneke Le Floc'h, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO
Description

Δοκιμή λέιζερ στο τεχνικό κέντρο της ESA στην Ολλανδία.

Το Εργαστήριο Οπτο-ηλεκτρονικής ερευνά συσκευές που παράγουν, ανιχνεύουν και χειρίζονται το φως, όπως τα λέιζερ υψηλής απόδοσης, τους ανιχνευτές φωτονίων και τις οπτικές ίνες.

Συνεργάζεται στενά με το γειτονικό Εργαστήριο Οπτικής, το οποίο ειδικεύεται στο σχεδιασμό, την εκτίμηση και τον έλεγχο των οπτικών στοιχείων για διαστημικά τηλεσκόπια, φωτογραφικές μηχανές και μέσα απεικόνισης, καθώς και στην αξιολόγηση των οπτικών ιδιοτήτων των νέων υλικών και των επιστρώσεων και την αξιολόγηση κάθε βλάβης που προκαλείται από λέιζερ.

Τα δύο εργαστήρια συνεργάζονται για να υποστηρίξουν τις αποστολές και τα έργα της ESA καθ' όλη τη διάρκεια λειτουργίας τους.
Id 376063

Psalms 104 sung in ancient Hebrew | ברכי נפשי את ה' - תהלים ק"ד
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=--UABwqW9Sg

Psalm 27, "ADONAI Ori" The L-RD is My Light
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wMZkqhZFVqc
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