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 L'Agriculture Mondiale, Rogue One, Le Survivant et Y'becca

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yanis la chouette



Nombre de messages : 4956
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Date d'inscription : 12/11/2005

MessageSujet: L'Agriculture Mondiale, Rogue One, Le Survivant et Y'becca    Sam 17 Déc à 3:33

THIS REPORT CONTAINS ASSESSMENTS OF COMMODITY AND TRADE ISSUES MADE BY USDA STAFF AND NOT NECESSARILY STATEMENTS OF OFFICIAL U.S. GOVERNMENT POLICY
-
Date:
GAIN Report Number:
Post:
Report Categories:
Approved By:
Prepared By:
Report Highlights: This report provides a list of food, beverage and agricultural shows held in India. The Indian trade show industry holds a large number of shows dedicated to the various aspects of the food and agricultural industry. Indian ag, fishery, and forestry imports and exports in 2015 were, respectively $25 billion and $35 billion.
Priya Jashnani
Adam Branson
Trade Show Announcement
Retail Foods
Promotion Opportunities
Market Promotion/Competition
Beverages
Indian Food and Agricultural Trade Show Calendar 2017
New Delhi
India
IN6159
12/13/2016
Public
Voluntary
IN6159 – Indian Food and Agricultural Trade Show Calendar 2017 Page 2
General Information: Indian food shows traditionally showcased Indian exporters or focused on food processing technologies. However, over the past few years, several shows have attracted exporters and importers as well as domestic manufacturers. Trade shows have become a potentially useful vehicle for those businesses seeking to identify a distributor, introduce a new product, or, get a feel for the Indian market. Additionally, India has long held shows focused on agricultural technology and inputs; some of these shows attract hundreds of thousands of farmers. Indian importers increasingly travel to international trade shows such as Gulfood, Anuga, SIAL Paris and Food & Hotel Asia. FAS India office disseminates information of most frequented international USDA endorsed trade shows to Indian importers and distributors with assistance offered at these shows. Additionally, USDA Cooperator groups take buyers missions from India to various domestic USDA endorsed food shows in the U.S. These shows present good opportunities to meet some self-selecting Indian firms that import and distribute food, beverage, and other agricultural products. However, to meet a broader audience of potential importers and distributors, local or regional shows taking place within India provide an opportunity to identify manifold more potential customers. One of the best reasons to come to a show in India is to gain a greater understanding of the local market. Consequently, combining a local retail tour along with participation at a trade show or some site visits and meetings with customers is a better way to get the most out of a visit to India. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) currently endorses the Annapoorna-World of Food India show held each September. Occasionally, USDA India offices as well as USDA Cooperator groups participate in additional food and agricultural product shows. In addition, the USDA India offices regularly assess shows (e.g., Food Ingredients/Health Ingredients, India Food Forum, Food Hospitality World, Aahar and Delhi Wood) to talk with industry members about U.S. food and agricultural products and their potential in India. The list of shows following the trade tables includes some farm and technology oriented trade shows as well as food and beverage shows. This list is not exhaustive and inclusion or absence in this report should not be considered recognition of the particular show quality. The trade show industry in India is relatively new and the expectations for experienced trade show visitors should be managed accordingly for a developing market. Dates are subject to change and travelers should check with the show organizers before making travel arrangements. Note: There are several key trade restrictions that limit market access for U.S. food products. Imports of most animal and livestock-derived food products are effectively banned due to established Indian import requirements. This includes certain sub-categories in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule under Chapters 2, 3, 4, 5, 16 and 21 (e.g., milk and dairy products, poultry meat, certain seafood, ovine and caprine products, as well as pork products and pet food). Furthermore, imports of beef are banned due to religious concerns.
IN6159 – Indian Food and Agricultural Trade Show Calendar 2017 Page 3
U.S. exporters may wish to consider these factors when deciding to enter the Indian market. If you have a question about market access for your food product, please contact the Office of Agricultural Affairs, India.
IN6159 – Indian Food and Agricultural Trade Show Calendar 2017 Page 4
IN6159 – Indian Food and Agricultural Trade Show Calendar 2017 Page 5
JANUARY 2017
Khadhya Khurak
Jan 3 – 6, Ahmedabad www.khadhya.khuraknews.com Organized by Khimashia Associates, the show focuses on the food processing and hospitality sector.
BodyPower India
Jan 6 – 8, Bombay Exhibition Centre, Mumbai
https://www.bodypower.com/expo/india/about
Organized by BodyPower, UK, the show focuses on sports, fitness, wellness and nutrition.
Vibrant Gujarat Global Summit Jan 10 – 13, Gandhinagar www.vibrantgujarat.com
The event is organized by the Gujarat government to attract investment under numerous sectors from handicrafts to infrastructure to textile to food and beverages. In 2015, USA was the country partner for the event.
Foodtech Kerala
Jan 12 – 14, Kochi
http://cruzexpos.com/Kerala%20Exhibition.html
Organized by Cruz Expos, the show focuses on Kerela’s food processing and packaging industry.
Food Hospitality World
Jan 19 – 21, MMRDA Ground, Mumbai
www.fhwexpo.in
Organized by Global fairs & Media Pvt Ltd., the show caters to the food, beverage and hospitality industry. USDA participated in the 2014 and 2015 shows. The show takes place in Bangalore and Goa as well.
Krushik
Jan 19 – 22, Baramati, Pune
www.krushikexpoindia.com
Organized by Krishi Vigyan Kendra, the expo is an annual forum for farmers, agricultural industrialists and social institutions to discuss research and technological advancements in the field.
UpperCrust Food & Wine Show
Jan 27 – 29, 2017, WTC, Mumbai
www.theuppercrustshow.com
Organized by the publishers of UpperCrust food, wine and style magazine, the food and wine event caters to both businesses and end-consumers.
IN6159 – Indian Food and Agricultural Trade Show Calendar 2017 Page 6
India Food Forum
Jan 31 – Feb 2, MMRDA Ground, Mumbai
www.indiafoodforum.com
Organized by Images Multimedia Pvt. Ltd., India Food Forum combines India’s leading food conference with a concurrent trade show. USDA participated in the 2014, 2015, 2016 shows.
FEBRUARY 2017
India Leather Fair Feb 1 – 3, Chennai
www.iilfleatherfair.com
Organized by ITPO, the show focuses on products relating to the leather industry. The show is held in Delhi, Kolkata and Chennai.
Global Grain Food & Feed (G2F2) Feb 1 – 3, JW Marriott Hotel New Delhi Aerocity, New Delhi
www.g2f2.com
Organized by Tefla, this event focuses on the global grain, food and feed manufacturing, processing equipment and technology.
Sula Fest
Feb 3 – 5, Sula Vineyards, Nashik
www.sulafest.net
Organized by Sula Vineyards, Sula Fest is a 3-day event featuring food and Indian wine from Sula’s vineyard.
Etailing Expo
Feb 8 – 10, 2017, Hotel Sahara Star, Mumbai
www.etailingexpo.com
Organized by eTailing India, the conference focuses on India’s growing ecommerce, retail and mobile sector
India Pharma
Feb 9 – 11, Bangalore
www.indiapharmaexpo.in
Organized by the Department of Pharmaceuticals, Ministry of Chemicals & Fertilizers, Government of India and the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI), the show caters to the Indian pharmaceuticals sector.
India Bakery Expo
Feb 17 – 19, Chennai
www.indiabakeryexpo.com Organized by Tamil Nadu Bakers Federation, India, the show focuses on bakery equipments, ingredients, technology and accessories sector.
IN6159 – Indian Food and Agricultural Trade Show Calendar 2017 Page 7
IIDE – India International Dairy Expo
Feb 16 – 18, BEC, Mumbai
www.iideindia.com Organized jointly by Indian Dairy Association and Koelnmesse YA Tradefair Pvt. Ltd, the show caters to the latest technological developments in the dairy industry.
Feed Tech Expo
Feb 23 – 25, Karnal, Haryana
www.feedtechexpo.com Organized by Benison Media, the show focuses on feed technology for the poultry, dairy and aqua industry along with conference on animal nutrition.
Acrex India
Feb 23 – 25, India Expo Center, New Delhi
www.acrex.in Organized by NumbergMesse GmbH, Acrex focuses on the cold chain sector including building engineering.
MARCH 2017
Delhi Wood
Mar 1 – 4, India Expo Center, New Delhi
www.delhi-wood.com
Organized by PDA Trade Fairs, the show focuses on furniture production technologies, woodworking machinery, tools, fittings, accessories and raw materials.
IITCE - India International Tea and Coffee Expo
Mar 3 – 5, Kolkata
www.teacoffeeexpo.in
Organized by the Tea Board of India, the exhibition hosts alongside with it a conference, seminar and championship awards focused on tea, coffee and related products.
AAHAR International Food Fair
Mar 7 -11, Pragati Maidan, New Delhi
www.aaharinternationalfair.com
Organized by the government-run Indian Trade Promotion Organization, AAHAR caters to the processed food and hospitality sector including machinery & technology. This is India’s oldest food show.
APRIL 2017
Oils & Fats International
April 7 – 8, BEC, Mumbai
www.ofievents.com/india/
Organized by Quartz Chemicals, UK, the event caters to the edible oils and fats sector of India.
IN6159 – Indian Food and Agricultural Trade Show Calendar 2017 Page 8
Fresh Produce India
April 27 – 28, Mumbai
www.freshproduceindia.com
Organized by Asia Fruit, the event highlights the fresh produce industry of India. The event also hosts a conference and tour of the fresh produce market.
JUNE 2017
Food Hospitality World
Jun 8 – 10, Bangalore
www.fhwexpo.in
Organized by Global fairs & Media Pvt Ltd., the show caters to the food, beverage and hospitality industry. FAS Mumbai staff attended the 2016 show.
The Bakery World Expo
Jun 15 – 17, BEC, Mumbai
www.thebakeryworldexpo.com Organized by Reed Exhibitions First, the show focuses on the bakery, pastry and confectionery sector of India.
Hospitality Business Fair
Jun 26 – 28, Coimbatore
www.nferias.com/hospitality-business-fair/ Organized by Synergy Exposures and Events India, the show focuses on the hospitality sector in Southern India.
AUGUST 2017
Food Hospitality World
Aug 3 – 5, Goa
www.fhwexpo.in
Organized by Global fairs & Media Pvt Ltd., the show caters to the food, beverage and hospitality industry. FAS Mumbai staff attended the 2016 show.
Woodtech India
Aug 4 – 6, Chennai Trade Center, Chennai
www.woodtechindia.com
Organized by PDA Trade Fairs, the show focuses on woodworking and furniture manufacturing machineries, tools fittings, wood products, accessories and raw materials.
ANUTEC - International FoodTec India
IN6159 – Indian Food and Agricultural Trade Show Calendar 2017 Page 9
PackEx India
Dairy Universe India Sweet and SnackTec India
Aug 21 – 23, Pragati Maidan, New Delhi
www.foodtecindia.com www.packexindia.com www.dairyuniverseindia.com www.sweetandsnacktecindia.com A joint-venture of Koelnmesse and the Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (FICCI), the show focuses on the food and drink processing industry. Concurrent to ANUTEC, the above shows focus on packaging, processing distribution, refrigeration, warehousing, and production technology for a range of agricultural sectors.
India Foodex, Graintec India, MeatTech Asia, Dairytech, International Poultry and Livestock Expo Aug 28 – 30, Bangalore www.indiafoodex.com
www.graintechindia.com
www.meattechasia.com
www.dairytechindia.in
www.iplexpo.com
These concurrent shows focus on processing and production technology for a range of agricultural sectors.
SEPTEMBER 2017
Annapoorna World of Food India Sept 14 – 16, Bombay Exhibition Center, Mumbai www.worldoffoodindia.com A joint-venture of Koelnmesse and the Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (FICCI), Annapoorna – World of Food India is an international exhibition on food and beverage products in India. This is a USDA endorsed show.
Indian Ice Cream Congress & Expo
Sept 14 – 15, CIDCO Exhibition Center, Vashi, Navi Mumbai
www.indianicecreamcongress.in
Organized by the Indian Ice Cream Manufacturers Association, the expo holds seminars, exhibitions, workshops and networking with ice cream manufacturers in the region.
India Retail Forum
Dates and Venue to be confirmed
www.indiaretailforum.in
Organized by Images Group, the forum is focuses on the trends, opportunities and challenges faced for the Indian retail sector.
IN6159 – Indian Food and Agricultural Trade Show Calendar 2017 Page 10
OCTOBER 2017
Mumbai Wood
Oct 12 – 14, BEC, Mumbai
www.mumbai-wood.com
Organized by PDA Trade Fairs, the show focuses on furniture production technologies, woodworking machinery, tools, fittings, accessories and raw materials.
NOVEMBER 2017
BioFach India India Organic Nov 9 – 11, New Delhi www.biofach-india.com Organized by NumbergMesse GmbH, Biofach and India Organic are venues for the organic food and fiber sectors.
Food Ingredients & Health Ingredients
Nov 9 – 11, BEC, Mumbai
www.figlobal.com/india/
Organized by UBM India, the show focuses on food and beverage ingredients sector.
Poultry India
November 22-24, 2017, Hitex Exhibition Complex, Hyderabad, India
www.poultryindia.co.in
Organized by Indian Poultry Equipment Manufacturers Association, the exhibition focuses on poultry production and management, poultry health & nutrition, poultry breeding and new techniques in feed manufacturing.
DECEMBER 2017
India Cold Chain Show
Dec 12 – 14, BEC, Mumbai
www.indiacoldchainshow.com/about-india-cold-chain-show/ Organized by Reed Exhibitions First, the show focuses on the cold chain industry of India.
World Tea & Coffee Expo Dates to be confirmed, Mumbai www.worldteacoffeeexpo.com Organized by Sentinel Exhibitions, the show focuses on the Indian tea and coffee sector.
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Date d'inscription : 12/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: L'Agriculture Mondiale, Rogue One, Le Survivant et Y'becca    Sam 17 Déc à 3:33

Agriculture:Rogue One into the bibliothèque Impériale

THIS REPORT CONTAINS ASSESSMENTS OF COMMODITY AND TRADE ISSUES MADE BY USDA STAFF AND NOT NECESSARILY STATEMENTS OF OFFICIAL U.S. GOVERNMENT POLICY
-
Date:
GAIN Report Number:
Post:
Report Categories:
Approved By:
Prepared By:
Report Highlights: On September 26, 2016, China’s General Administration for Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ) published “AQSIQ Announcement (2016 No. 97) Inspection and Quarantine Requirements for Importing U.S. Sugar Beet Pulp.” AQSIQ also lists 16 U.S. sugar beet pulp facilities approved to export U.S. sugar beet pulp to China. This report contains an UNOFFICIAL translation of the AQSIQ Announcement (2016 No. 97) Inspection and Quarantine Requirements for Importing U.S. Sugar Beet Pulp.
Gene Kim
Lisa Anderson
FAIRS Subject Report
China Approves Market Access of U.S. Sugar Beet Pulp Pellets
Beijing
China - Peoples Republic of
CH16053
12/12/2016
Public
Voluntary


Executive Summary: On September 26, 2016, China’s General Administration for Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ) published “AQSIQ Announcement (2016 No. 97) Inspection and Quarantine Requirements for Importing U.S. Sugar Beet Pulp.” This announcement also lists the 16 U.S. sugar beet pulp facilities approved to export U.S. sugar beet pulp pellets to China. According to this announcement, effective immediately, approved exporters are certified to export U.S. sugar beet pulp pellets, which are now a registered feed ingredient with AQSIQ. This report contains an UNOFFICIAL translation of the AQSIQ Announcement (2016 No. 97) Inspection and Quarantine Requirements for Importing U.S. Sugar Beet Pulp. This UNOFFICIAL translation has been edited for clarity. For an OFFICIAL translation of the AQSIQ announcement, please refer to the link above. U.S. sugar beet pulp pellet shippers preparing to export to China are recommended to contact the USDA, Animal Plant Health Inspections Service for specific details to comply with U.S. and Chinese export regulations before executing export arrangements. Please note that in addition to the AQSIQ sugar beet pulp pellet import certificate exporters must present a “Safety Certificate (Import)” from the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) attesting that sugar beet pulp pellets exported to China are consistent with MOA genetically-modified organism regulations. To date, China has approved one genetically-modified sugar beet variety (H7-1), which is tolerant to the herbicide glyphosate (commercially known as Roundup Ready Sugar Beets). In the 2009/10 marketing year, genetically-modified sugar beets with the H7-1 variety accounted for about 95 percent of the planted sugar beet crop in the United States.

BEGIN UNOFFICIAL TRANSLATION
AQSIQ Announcement (2016 No. 97) Inspection and Quarantine Requirements for Importing U.S. Sugar Beet Pulp According to our experts’ risk analysis results of U.S. sugar beet pulp, based on site visits, through the negotiation of inspection and quarantine agencies of China and the United States, both sides identified the phytosanitary requirements of U.S. sugar beet pulp to be exported to China. Effective immediately, AQSIQ allows imports of U.S. sugar beet pulp complying with the “Phytosanitary Requirements of Importing U.S. Sugar Beet Pulp” (See Attachment).
Attachment: Phytosanitary Requirements for Importing U.S. Sugar Beet Pulp
AQSIQ September 26, 2016
Attachment Phytosanitary Requirements of Importing U.S. Sugar Beet Pulp 1. Legal and Regulatory Basis: “Law of the People's Republic of China on the Entry and Exit Animal and Plant Quarantine” and its implementation regulations: “Inspection and Quarantine Supervision Management Methods of Importing Feed and Feed Additives” and the “Protocol of Safety and Phytosanitary Conditions for the United States Sugar Beet Pulp Pellets to Be Exported to China Between the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China and the United States Department of Agriculture” (hereinafter referred to as the Protocol) 2. Name of Commodity Allowed to Enter: Sugar beet pulp pellets refers to the dried pulp from sugar beet produced in the United States, by leaching, drying, and pressing after sugar separation.
3. Approval of Processors
Sugar beet pulp pellets to be exported to China should come from processors inspected and approved by the United States Department of Agriculture (hereinafter referred to as USDA). The processors will be recommended to the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China (hereinafter referred to as AQSIQ), and will be registered after AQSIQ’s evaluation or inspection. The list of registered processors can be found on the AQSIQ website. 4. Requirements of Quarantine Pests and Transgenic Contents:
Sugar beet pulp pellets to be exported to China must not carry quarantine pests of China’s concern (See Attachment 1) or contain transgenic contents that are not officially approved by China. 5. Commodity Processing and Export Requirements: 5.1 Process Storage and Transportation 5.1.1 Sugar beet pulp pellet processors should establish good Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP), a traceability management system and effective operation, or implement management systems based on quality concepts. Processors should strengthen sanitary control on raw materials and accessories, production processes, product warehouse facilities, transportation, etc. to ensure sugar beet pulp pellets comply with the following requirements:  Do not carry quarantine pests of China’s concern listed in Attachment 1;  Do not carry live pests;
 Do not carry sugar beet seeds and other plant residues;
 Do not carry animal carcasses and feces, bird feathers;
 Do not carry soil, plastic film, stone, metal and other foreign objects;  Do not add toxic and hazardous substances and any animal- derived ingredients. 5.1.2 Sugar beet pulp pellets should be stored in the storage facilities with the following conditions before shipment:  Stored separately from raw materials and other products;
 Take prevention measures to prevent secondary contamination of pests;  Take measures to prevent contamination of feathers, bird dead and guano;
 Take measures to prevent mouse contamination.
5.1.3 Packing bags to be used for exporting sugar beet pulp pellets to China should be clean and sanitary. Conveyance for sugar beet pulp pellet transportation should be thoroughly cleaned and sanitized when necessary. 5.2 Inspection Prior to Export and Requirements of Certificates 5.2.1 USDA should underscore its official oversight of the processors of sugar beet pulp pellets for export to China through routine supervision and inspection (at least once every six months) to ensure product safety and sanitation. Prior to departure, USDA should conduct on-site inspection of sugar beet
pulp pellets, according to Protocol requirements. If live pests are detected after inspection, the shipment of sugar beet pulp pellets in question should not be exported to China.
5.2.2 USDA should issue the official Phytosanitary Certificate after passing the inspection and quarantine.
Please see Attachment 2 for a sample of the certificate. 5.3 Requirements for Labelling: Each container or vessel cabin (if bulk shipment) of each consignment of sugar beet pulp pellets to be exported to China must have at least one packaging label with the name and the registration number of the processor and such printing on the label as “U.S. sugar beet pulp pellets to be exported to the People’s Republic of China” in both Chinese and English. 6. Entry Inspection: 6.1 Certificate Verification:
6.1.1 Inspect if the shipment of sugar beet pulp pellets is attached with Animal and Plant Import Permit. 6.1.2 Inspect if Phytosanitary Certificate issued by USDA is consistent with the sample certificate.
6.2 Shipment Inspection According to the requirements of “Inspection and Quarantine Working Procedure for Entry Feed” of the “Inspection and Quarantine Working Manual,” the Plant Inspection and Quarantine Volume, Article 5, and the List of Quarantine Pests of China’s Concern in Attachment 1 of this announcement, upon entry, on-site inspection and quarantine of sugar beet pulp pellets and laboratory sampling for inspection identification are required.
7. Handling of Non-Compliance
When the following non-compliance of importing sugar beet pulp pellets are found, the consignment will be handled according to the following provisions:
7.1 Be returned or destroyed if the Phytosanitary Certificate or the Safety and Sanitary Declaration does not meet the requirements; 7.2 Be treated, returned, or destroyed, if live quarantine pests are found; 7.3 Be treated, returned, or destroyed, if other live pests are found; 7.4 Be returned or destroyed, if soil or transgenic contents that are not officially approved by China are found; 7.5 Be treated, returned, or destroyed, according to related laws or regulations, if animal feces, animal carcasses, poultry feathers, or plant seeds are found, or the consignment does not comply with China’s feed safety and sanitary standards;
When the non-compliance is found, AQSIQ will notify USDA and take additional measures including suspending related processors, based on the severity of the non-compliance. In any case above, if the goods are not allowed to enter China, and must be treated, destroyed, or returned for any reason, the related costs will be borne by American exporters. Attachments
1. List of Quarantine Pests of China’s Concern
2. Sample of Phytosanitary Certificate (Note: Not included in the OFFICIAL translation)
Attachment 1
List of Quarantine Pests of China’s Concern
No.
Scientific Name
Chinese Name
1.
SolenopsisinvictaBuren
红火蚁
2.
Trogodermaspp.(non-Chinese)
斑皮蠹(非中国种)
3.
Sinoxylonspp.(non-Chinese)
双棘长蠹(非中国种)
4.
HeteroderaschachtiiSchmidt
甜菜胞囊线虫
5.
Cuscutaspp.
菟丝子(属)
6.
Emexspinosa (L.) Campd.
刺亦模
7.
Ambrosia spp.
豚草(属)
8.
AvenaludovicianaDurien
法国野燕麦
9.
Sorghum halepense(L.) Pers. (Johnsongrass and its cross breeds)
假高粱(及其杂交种)
10.
Sorghum almum Parodi.
黑高粱
11.
Peronosporafarinosa (Fries: Fries) Fries f.sp.betae Byford
Peronosporafarinosa f. sp.
甜菜霜霉病菌
12.
Phomapinodella (L.K. Jones) Morgan-Jones et K.B. Burch
豌豆脚腐病菌
END UNOFFICIAL TRANSLATION
Attachment 2 (Note: Added for reference)
Sample Phytosanitary Certificate
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Date d'inscription : 12/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: L'Agriculture Mondiale, Rogue One, Le Survivant et Y'becca    Sam 17 Déc à 3:36

THIS REPORT CONTAINS ASSESSMENTS OF COMMODITY AND TRADE ISSUES MADE BY USDA STAFF AND NOT NECESSARILY STATEMENTS OF OFFICIAL U.S. GOVERNMENT POLICY
-
Date:
GAIN Report Number:
Post:
Report Categories:
Approved By:
Prepared By:
Report Highlights:
Japan’s Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries (MAFF) and its Consumer Affairs Agency (CAA) presented their draft interim report on expanding Japan’s Country of Origin Labeling (COOL) requirements for ingredients to the public at a meeting held on November 2, 2016. The new rule requires Japanese food manufacturers to identify the country(ies) where the product’s main ingredient, by weight, was manufactured on the label of the product. If a series of approval steps are cleared, the new rule could come into effect as early as next summer.
Keywords: country of origin labeling, ingredients, JA6048
Yuichi Hayashi, Agricultural Specialist
Christopher Riker, Senior Agricultural Attaché
Agricultural Situation
FAIRS Subject Report
Japan Moves Forward on Expanded COOL Requirements for Ingredients
Tokyo
Japan
JA6048
11/9/2016
Public
Voluntary
General Information:
BACKGROUND
Despite opposition from several interested parties, MAFF and the CAA released a draft interim
report on expanding Japan’s Country of Origin Labeling (COOL) requirements for ingredients at a
public meeting held on November 2, 2016. The new rule is consistent with previous iterations (see,
e.g., JA6032) and requires Japanese food manufacturers to identify the country(ies) where a
product’s main ingredient, by weight, was manufactured on the label of the product.1
EXPANDED COUNTRY OF ORIGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR INGREDIENTS
Attachment 1 at the end of this report, and previous reporting on this issue, illustrates how the new
system is envisioned to operate.
One exceptional case to the rule is Onigiri (i.e., a Japanese rice ball). While the heaviest ingredient
in the product is rice, the seaweed (known in Japanese as nori) for the rice ball is also included in the
proposed expanded rule, and the country of origin for the seaweed will need to be identified. The
rice ball’s seaweed is reportedly included because:
1) Onigiri (rice balls) are a national food;
2) Japanese seaweed producers strongly lobbied for its inclusion; and,
3) the Japanese industry argued that the country of origin of the seaweed is important
information for consumers when choosing a rice ball.
WHAT ARE THE NEXT STEPS?
MAFF and the CAA will now hold public informational sessions on the expanded COOL for
ingredients proposal at nine different locations in Japan (i.e., from Hokkaido to Okinawa). They will
explain the basic concepts and labeling methods of the expanded COOL for ingredients proposal,
and interested parties are invited to attend. In Tokyo, two seminars will be held: the first at 10:00
AM and another at 2:00 PM on December 21, 2016. The registration deadline is 6:00 PM on
December 16, 2016. If interested parties cannot attend these sessions, a third seminar is expected to
be held in Tokyo in mid-January. Please see details of the seminars at the CAA’s website at
http://www.caa.go.jp/policies/policy/food_labeling/other/pdf/food_labeling_other_161202_0001.pdf.
In addition, the Consumer Committee’s2 (CC) Food Labeling Sub-Committee is now considering the
CAA’s proposal for expanding the labeling requirements and, if it deems it appropriate, will
ultimately instruct the CAA to revise Japan’s Food Labeling Standards. Before, however, the CC
will hold food labeling sub-committee meetings to discuss the proposal -- the first at 4:00 PM on
1 NOTE: Foreign manufactured, finished processed foodstuffs that are exported to Japan are not subject to the
current COOL requirements for ingredients, and have not been marked for inclusion in the expanded COOL
requirements.
2 The Consumer Committee, a cabinet office in Japan, investigates and discusses various consumer issues and
submits opinions (proposals, etc.) to relevant government ministries and agencies including the CAA. It also
conducts investigations and deliberations in response to inquiries of the Prime Minister, relevant Ministers, or the
CAA Commissioner.
December 19, 2016 -- which are open to interested parties. Information on attending the first meeting can be found online at http://www.cao.go.jp/consumer/kabusoshiki/syokuhinhyouji/bukai/038/kaisai/index.html
After the aforementioned sub-committee meetings are held, and if the proposed expansion presses forward, the CAA will solicit public comment and consult the CC on any comments received. Simultaneous to when the CAA invites public comment in Japan, it will notify World Trade Organization members of the proposed change.
If a revision will ultimately be made, the new law may come into effect as early as the summer of 2017.
ATTACHMENT 1

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Date d'inscription : 12/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: L'Agriculture Mondiale, Rogue One, Le Survivant et Y'becca    Sam 17 Déc à 3:39

THIS REPORT CONTAINS ASSESSMENTS OF COMMODITY AND TRADE ISSUES MADE BY USDA STAFF AND NOT NECESSARILY STATEMENTS OF OFFICIAL U.S. GOVERNMENT POLICY
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Report Highlights: In 2015 swine inventories decreased by 4 percent due to reduced prices and export restrictions of pork caused by outbreaks of African Swine Fever (ASF). The outbreak of ASF and continuation of the Russian import ban in 2016 are the major factors adversely affecting the Latvian swine production later in 2016 and in 2017. Production of pork in 2016 is expected to increase by 7 percent because of reduction of inventories and higher slaughter stemming from unfavorable economic conditions for swine production. Cattle inventories are expected to increase in 2016 because growing numbers of beef cattle will offset reduction in the dairy cow herd.
General Information:
Piotr Rucinski, Agricultural Specialist
Russ Nicely, Agricultural Attaché
Livestock and Products
Livestock and Products Report
Warsaw
Latvia
12/9/2016
Public
Voluntary
Swine
Production
At the beginning of 2016 inventories of swine amounted to 334,000 head and are expected to decrease
towards the end of the year and on into 2017. At the beginning of 2016 the number of breeding sows
amounted to 24,000 head and was 11 percent lower than a year earlier. The outbreak of ASF in the wild
boar population in June 2014 and domestic swine in June 2015 resulted in restrictions on exports of live
pigs and pork that adversely affected the Latvian swine industry (see also FAS Warsaw Report
“Expansion of African Swine Fever in Poland and Baltic Countries._Warsaw_Poland_11-7-2016“).
Reduction of farm-gate prices for swine in 2015 and restrictions on sale of pigs in the areas affected by
ASF force farmers to increase slaughter and reduce herds.
Consumption
Slaughter of swine in 2016 is expected to be 7 percent higher than a year ago because of continuing
reduction of inventories. It is expected that slaughter weight will increase in 2016 because of delays in
procurement of pigs in the areas affected by ASF and fluctuations of farm-gate prices for swine.
Trade
In 2015 Latvia exported 170,836 head of swine mainly to Lithuania and Poland. Exports of swine in
2015 were four percent lower than in 2014 because of reduced shipments to Poland. Reduction of
swine inventories accompanied by ASF restrictions are expected to further limit exports of swine in
2016. In the first eight months of 2016 exports of swine was reduced by 23 percent in comparison to
the same period of 2015. Over 90 percent of total exports to Poland consisted of piglets while exports
to Lithuania consisted mostly of slaughter hogs. Russia used to be the major market for exports of
Latvian swine, however, an increase of tariffs followed by introduction of the import ban in August
2014 reduced exports from 163,000 head in 2011 to zero in 2015. In the first 8 months of 2016 exports
of swine were reduced by 6 percent in comparison to the same period of 2015. Latvian imports of
swine in the first eight months of 2016 amounted to 6,720 head, almost a 50 percent reduction compared
to the same period of 2015.
Pork
Production
It is estimated that pork output in 2016 will amount to 24,900 MT and will be 7 percent higher than in
2015. Higher pork output will result from increased slaughter. In 2015 the share of pork in the total
volume of meat accounted for 42 percent, as compared to 35 percent for poultry meat and 22 percent for
beef.
Trade Latvia is a net importer of pork. In 2015 imports of pork amounted to 32,212 MT. In the first eight months of 2016 imports of pork were 30 percent lower than in the same period of 2015 because of higher domestic supplies and reduced shipments from Poland, Lithuania and Germany. Major suppliers of pork are Poland and Estonia. In 2015 overall exports of pork amounted to 3,711 MT, a 40 percent drop compared to the previous year because of the Russian import ban. Cattle Production In December 2015 cattle inventories amounted to 419,000 head and were one percent lower than a year ago. The decrease of cattle inventories in 2015 resulted from a three percent reduction of dairy cow inventories because of the crisis in the dairy industry. Inventories of cattle are expected to grow in 2016 because of the growing popularity of beef cattle production. Growing interest in the development of beef cattle production stems from the difficult situation on the dairy market, so farmers look for alternative or additional sources of income. In Latvia production of beef cattle is also perceived as pro-organic production which is in line with a general policy of the government. Consumption Slaughter of cattle in 2015 was one percent higher than a year ago because of increased culling rate of dairy cows resulting from low level of farm-gate milk prices. It is expected that slaughter of cattle will decrease in 2016 due to higher exports. Trade In 2015 Latvia exported 43,567 head of cattle mainly to the Netherlands, Poland and Turkey. Cattle exports were six percent higher than in the previous year because of growing demand from Turkey. Farmers receive higher prices for cattle sold for export compared to prices offered by the domestic slaughter plants. It is expected that exports of cattle in 2016 will increase by 10 percent because of growing shipments to Turkey. Imports of cattle are limited to breeding stock from the Netherlands and Poland. Beef Production In 2015 beef production amounted to 18,800 MT. Production of beef is expected to decrease in 2016 because of reduced slaughter. Trade
Latvia is a net exporter of beef. In 2015 exports of beef amounted to 10,748 MT and were 10 percent higher than in 2014. The Netherlands were the major importer. In the first 8 months of 2016 beef exports were at the same level as in 2015. In 2015 Latvia imported 7,591 MT of beef mainly from Poland. End of the report.
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Date d'inscription : 12/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: L'Agriculture Mondiale, Rogue One, Le Survivant et Y'becca    Sam 17 Déc à 3:40

THIS REPORT CONTAINS ASSESSMENTS OF COMMODITY AND TRADE ISSUES MADE BY USDA STAFF AND NOT NECESSARILY STATEMENTS OF OFFICIAL U.S. GOVERNMENT POLICY
-
Date:
GAIN Report Number:
Post:
Report Categories:
Approved By:
Prepared By:
Report Highlights: Latvia is a net importer of poultry meat. It is estimated that in 2016 poultry meat production will increase by 10 percent as a result of growing domestic demand and reduced imports. In 2015 production of eggs grew by 8 percent because of increased demand for export to the United States. It is expected that in 2016 production of eggs will decline because of reduced exports.
Piotr Rucinski, Agricultural Specialist
Russ Nicely, Agricultural Attaché
Poultry and Products
Poultry production in Latvia continues to grow.
Warsaw
Latvia
12/9/2016
Public
Voluntary
General Information:
Production In 2015 poultry meat production in Latvia amounted to 29,700 MT and was 3 percent higher than in 2014. It is expected that due to growing domestic demand and low cost of feed production of poultry meat will grow in 2016 by 10 percent. In 2015 the share of poultry meat in total meat production amounted to 35 percent and was three percent higher than in 2014. Latvia's largest poultry producer and processor is Putnu Fabrika Ķekava. PF Kekava supplies an estimated 65 percent of the total supply of poultry meat in Latvia and produces 240 types of poultry products. The annual turnover of Ķekava is estimated at U.S. $40 million, with U.S. $5.5 million profit. The company belongs to the Lithuanian investment agricultural holding Linas Agro Group. In 2016 the overall growth of production capacity of PF Kekava is expected to be 10 percent higher than in 2015. Since the beginning of 2016 the company has invested 7.4 million Euro in the modernization of facilities and the opening of new production lines. PF Kekava established a new export brand “Top Choice Poultry” designed for the catering segment. Kekava is exporting nearly 28 percent of overall volume of production, and is aiming to bring this figure up to 40 percent within the next couple of years. The company produces nearly 20,000 MT of poultry per year. In 2015, 698 million eggs were produced in Latvia, compared to 648 million in 2014. In 2015, on average one laying hen produced 272 eggs. Increase of egg production 2015 by 8 percent stemmed from demand for export of eggs to the United States. Consumption Demand for domestically produced products is growing in Latvia. Several Latvian poultry producers, including Putnu Fabrika Kekava Ltd and Lielzeltini, are putting the origin of their products on the packaging, letting consumers know that they are buying domestically produced poultry. According to recent studies for 76 percent of Latvian consumers it is important that the poultry they are buying is produced in Latvia and the information about the origin of the product is stated on the packaging.
Trade Latvia is a net importer of poultry meat. In 2015 Latvia imported 27,988 MT of poultry meat valued at U.S. $37 million. In the first 8 months of 2016 imports of poultry products amounted to 23,323 MT, a drop by 10 percent in comparison to the same period of the previous year, because of lower imports from Lithuania and Poland. Estonia is a major supplier of poultry meat to Latvia followed by, Poland and Lithuania. Latvia imports mainly chicken cuts and edible offal (HS code 020713) and prepared or preserved chicken meat and offal (HS code 160232). In 2015 exports of poultry meat amounted to 13,642 MT, 10 percent less than in 2014. In the first 8 months of 2016 exports decreased by 11 percent, due to reduced volume of shipments to Sweden and
closure of the Russian market. A decline of prices within the EU resulted in a 17 percent drop of value of exports in the first 8 months of 2016 in comparison to the same period of 2015. Main export destinations within the EU are Estonia, Sweden and Lithuania. Exports outside of the EU are directed mainly to Belarus and Uzbekistan. Although the priority markets for Latvia’s exports are the Baltic States and Scandinavia, the largest poultry processor Putnu Fabrika Ķekava plans to launch exports to China. End of the Report.
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Date d'inscription : 12/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: L'Agriculture Mondiale, Rogue One, Le Survivant et Y'becca    Sam 17 Déc à 3:41

THIS REPORT CONTAINS ASSESSMENTS OF COMMODITY AND TRADE ISSUES MADE BY USDA STAFF AND NOT NECESSARILY STATEMENTS OF OFFICIAL U.S. GOVERNMENT POLICY
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Date:
GAIN Report Number:
Post:
Report Categories:
Approved By:
Prepared By:
Report Highlights: Latvia’s wood and wood products sector has slowly recovered from the economic recession experienced before 2010. In 2014 the total volume of timber harvested remained at the level of previous year amounting to 11.7 million m3. Intensive changes are noticed in the prefabricated wood (panel) modular house production industry. Production capacities are focusing on growing demand in North European countries. Prefabricated house production expansion also is a positive influence for the carpentry industry. In 2015 Latvia imported U.S. $ 771.79 million worth of forestry products.
Mira Kobuszynska, Agricultural Specialist
Russ Nicely, Agricultural Attaché
Wood Products
Wood Sector in Latvia
Warsaw
Latvia
12/12/2016
Public
Voluntary
General Information: Role of the agricultural and forestry sector in the economy Latvia’s wood and wood products sector has slowly recovered from the economic recession experienced before 2010. After a significant decrease in volume during the crisis, the wood and wood products sectors recovered due to competitiveness improvements and export opportunities. From 2011 to 2014, relatively fast growth rates were observed in construction, which experienced the biggest drop during the crisis. In the second half of 2014 Latvia’s agriculture industry was affected by Russia’s restrictions on food imports. In 2015 despite Russia’s restrictions on food imports, growth continued in the agriculture and forestry industries, but the pace of growth was much smaller than before the ban. At the beginning of 2015 the slow growth in the agriculture and forestry sector was mostly brought on by the difficult situation in forestry. The relatively warm weather at the beginning of the year restricted the possibility of taking timber out from felling areas. Much higher growth was observed in the agriculture and forestry sector in the second part of the year. It was largely facilitated by a record-high yield of grain, as well as the growth of the wood processing sector and the steady demand for timber. Share of Agriculture and Forestry in the Economy by Value Added and Dynamics of GDP Agriculture and Forestry % Share in the Economy Dynamics of GDP (% changes to the previous year) 2011 4.4 -1.7 2012 3.7 7.4 2013 3.4 1.2 2014 3.3 1.6 Source: Report on Economic Development of Latvia 2015, Ministry of Economics of Latvia
Structure of Manufacturing in 2015 (%) By output Share of exports in the sales of the sector Manufacturing total 100 64.0 Food and beverage production 23.5 34.4 Wood processing 27.1 74.7 Source: Report on Economic Development of Latvia 2015, Ministry of Economics of Latvia
Changes in the Production Volume of Manufacturing, % in relation to the previous year
Manufacturing total Food and beverage production Wood processing 2010 16.5 -0.1 33.0 2011 11.7 -0.2 12.6 2012 9.3 2.5 5.4 2013 0.1 6.0 2.7 2014 -0.3 0.1 6.9 2015 (Jan – Nov.) 4.1 -5.0 6.3 Source: Report on Economic Development of Latvia 2015, Ministry of Economics of Latvia Timber Supply Latvia’s forests cover 3.35 million hectares, 52 percent of the country’s territory. Latvia is the fourth most forested country in Europe after Finland, Sweden and Slovenia. 54 % of all trees in Latvian forests are deciduous trees, and they dominate the amount of stock volume. The number of stands of young birch trees and white alder has increased rapidly in the past few years. The predominant forest species in Latvia are: Pine 34.3%, Birch 30.8%, Spruce 18%, Grey Alder 7.4%, Aspen 5.4%, Black Alder 3%, Ash 0.5%, Oak 0.3%, Other Species 0.3%. The Latvian state owns 49 % of the forests in the country. Local governments own one percent of forest land. The rest of forested land is owned privately by about 133,000 owners. The ownership structure is highly dispersed, and 92 % of private owners hold less than 20 hectares. The average forest property area amounts to 10.6 hectares. The volume of timber harvested annually from Latvia’s forests up to 2009 was fairly stable – between 10 and 11 million m3 of timber. In 2010 felling increased to the highest level in the past ten years amounting to almost 13 million m3. In 2014 the total volume of timber harvested remained at the level of the previous year amounting to 11.7 million m3.
Volume of Felling by Ownership
Source: Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia Production of Wood Products Production of selected Wood Products in Latvia (000 m3) Production 2014 2015 estimate 2016 forecast Sawn wood, coniferous 2,768 2,832 2750 Sawn wood, non-coniferous 890 890 550 Plywood 250 240 250 Particle board (including OSB) 882 926 972 of which OSB 570 599 627 Paper and paperboard 40 40 40 Wood pellets (000 MT) 1,280 1,500 1,550 Source: Ministry of Agriculture of Latvia
Birch plywood production and softwood wood-panel production remains at high levels. For export markets a positive trend is the pellet production segment. According to annual biomass market research produced by Forest and Wood Products Research and Development Institute of Latvia, pellet production will continue moderate expansion in 2015-2016 as two new large scale pellet mills will start operating during the next 12 months. Semi-finished wood products and high value added wood products exports are the drivers for the wood processing sector. Intensive changes are noticed in the prefabricated wood (panel) modular house production industry. Production capacities are focusing on the growing demand in North European countries. Prefabricated house production expansion also is a positive influence for the carpentry industry, including wood door/window production and glue-laminate timber production. Investments were made in large scale structural wood products, namely cross laminated timber (CLT) and glue laminated timber (GLT) production units.
Trade Since 2010 exports of Latvian goods and services have been the main drivers behind economic development. Latvian exports of goods grew very intensively from 2010 to 2012, with the growth rate at current prices exceeding 20 percent a year. During this time wood and wood products dominated export growth. According to the Ministry of Economics in Latvia, during 2012-2013 the weaker economic growth in the EU affected Latvian wood exports due to a significant reduction in external demand. Export growth was mainly driven by an increase in competitiveness these years, resulting from decreased labor costs. At the same time, the increase in the exports of goods in 2014-2015 was mainly driven by external demand while the role of competitiveness in export growth became less significant. Exports by Main Commodity Goods (%, at current FOB prices) 2014 2015 (Jan – Nov.) Structure Changes 2014/13 Changes to the same period of 2014 Total 100 2.3 1.2 Agriculture and food products 19.3 -3.3 -3.3 Wood and wood products 16.6 6.7 2.4 Source: Report on Economic Development of Latvia 2015, Ministry of Economics of Latvia The small increase in imports of goods in 2014 was positively influenced mostly by the growth of imports of wood and its products.
Imports by Main Commodity Goods (%, at current CIF prices) 2014 2015 (Jan – Nov.) Structure Changes 2014/13 Changes to the same period of 2014 Total 100 0.2 -0.5 Agriculture and food products 15.8 -0.4 -3.4 Wood and wood products 2.6 33.3 13.8 Source: Report on Economic Development of Latvia 2015, Ministry of Economics of Latvia According to the Latvian Ministry of Agriculture, Latvia is a net exporter of forestry industry products. In 2015 Latvia exported EUR 2.04 billion (U.S. $ 2.23 billion) worth of forest industry products, which was 3.1 % more than in 2014 when exports amounted to EUR 1.98 billion (U.S. $ 2.41 billion). In 2015 Latvia exported EUR 1.74 billion (U.S. $ 1.90 billion) worth of timber and timber products, 2 percent up from EUR 1.70 billion (U.S. $ 2.07 billion) exported in 2014.
The EU is the main trading partner for the Latvian wood sector with an almost 90 percent share of the total Latvian wood export volume. Traditionally, Latvia’s largest forestry export markets are the UK, Germany and Sweden. In 2015 Latvia supplied its forestry products mainly to the UK (18.9% of total exports), Germany (10.5%) and Sweden (9.5%). Forestry industry exports to the UK have shown the highest dynamic of growth in the past few years. In 2015 exports to the UK increased to EUR 386.0 million (U.S. $ 422.0 million), by 17.2 % in comparison with 2014. In 2015exports to Germany increased by 2 percent and amounted to EUR 213.3 million (U.S. $ 233.2 million), and exports to Sweden increased by 20.4 percent to EUR 193.3 million (U.S. $ 211.34 million).
Wood Product Exports by Type in 2014
Source: Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia
Latvia imported EUR 705.9 million (U.S. $ 771.79 million) worth of forestry products in 2015. In 2015 imports of these products increased by 4.3 % up from EUR 676.7 million (U.S. $ 739.87 million) in 2014. Lithuania traditionally is the main supplier of forestry industry products to Latvia. In 2015 Latvia sourced from Lithuania 17.6 percent of total forestry industry imports, worth EUR 123.89 million (USD 135.45 million). The value of imported forestry products from Estonia amounted to EUR 90.38 million (USD 98.82 million), 12.8 percent of total forestry sector imports. Imports from Poland valued EUR 90.13 million (U.S.$ 98.54 million) (12.8 percent). According to USDA BICO statistics, the U.S. trade balance in forestry products with Latvia has been negative for the last few years. In 2015 Latvia’s exports to the U.S. exceeded imports by U.S. $ 14 million. The total forestry products trade between Latvia and the U.S. has been growing for the last few years, reaching U.S. $15.4 million in 2015.
U.S. exports of forest products to Latvia, Calendar Years January-December. (U.S. $ million) 2012 2013 2014 2015 % change 2014-15
Total Agricultural Fish&Forest Products 109.2 74.5 95.5 67.2 -29.6 Forest Products 0.8 1.6 1.5 0.7 -52 Source: BICO
U.S. imports of forest products from Latvia, Calendar Years January-December. (U.S. $ million) 2012 2013 2014 2015 % change 2014-15 Total Agricultural Fish&Forest Products 9.0 15.0 17.5 24.1 38.1 Forest Products 5.5 9.0 11.3 14.7 30.4 of which: Logs &Chips 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 72.7 Hardwood Lumber 1.2 1.4 1.2 2.1 72.5 Softwood&Treated Lumber 0.6 0.7 0.8 3.0 290.9 Panel Products 2.1 3.1 4.4 3.9 -12.7 Other Value Agdded Wood Products 1.6 3.6 4.8 5.7 18.3 Source: BICO According to Eurostat statistics the main wood products exported from the U.S. to Latvia is wood sawn or chipped (code 4407) followed by wood continuously shaped (4409). Their value amounted to U.S. $ 484,000. Major products exported in this group are: non coniferous wood, oak wood and maple sawn or chipped. The U.S. is the 6th supplier of these products for Latvia after Ukraine, Russia, Germany, Estonia and Belarus. Latvian wood and wood product imports from the U.S. are very unstable and show sudden ups and downs. It is strongly dependent on currency index, EUR versus U.S. $. In 2014 imports from the U.S. dynamically increased due to the higher price competitiveness of the U.S. wood. Lower pace of China export made more space for other suppliers to the European market. The most important factors influencing buying decisions of the Baltic importers are logistic costs and the risk related to currency volatility. The most promising U.S. wood product which has shown increases in recent years is hardwood lumber. Import of U.S. panel products diminished due to larger volumes of imports from Belarus, Scandinavian countries and some Western European sellers like the United Kingdom, France, Italy. Latvia’s imports of selected Wood &Wood Products from U.S., January-December, U.S. $ (000) Commodity Code Commodity 2013 2014 2015 % Share in 2015 % Change 2015/14 Wood&Wood Products 500 777 396 100 -48.99 4407 Wood Sawn or Chipped 199 484 246 62.18 -49.07 4409 Wood Continuously Shaped 162 216 115 29.05 -46.59 4408 Veneer Sheets 106 64 29 7.29 -54.96
4420 Wood Marquetry, Jewel Case etc. 2 2 5 1.32 191.33 Source:Eurostat
Latvia’s Imports of Logs & Chips per countries of origin, January-December Partner Country U.S. $ (000) % Share % Change 2013 2014 2015 2013 2014 2015 2015/2014 World 88716 124495 111031 100.00 100.00 100.00 - 10.82 Lithuania 60615 75803 52945 68.32 60.89 47.68 - 30.15 Belarus 13413 15591 32212 15.12 12.52 29.01 106.60 Estonia 10763 10681 10877 12.13 8.58 9.80 1.83 Russia 2308 7758 5860 2.60 6.23 5.28 - 24.46 Norway 37 11580 4650 0.04 9.30 4.19 - 59.85 Sweden 229 1890 2931 0.26 1.52 2.64 55.07 Belgium 675 595 563 0.76 0.48 0.51 - 5.33 Poland 37 118 391 0.04 0.09 0.35 232.67 Germany 287 150 261 0.32 0.12 0.23 74.29 Ukraine 112 235 210 0.13 0.19 0.19 - 10.60 Bosnia & Herzegovina 0 15 65 0.00 0.01 0.06 337.15 Denmark 80 35 30 0.09 0.03 0.03 - 14.08 United States 0 0 21 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.00 Source:Eurostat Latvia’s Imports of Panel Products (incl. Plywood) per countries of origin, Calendar Years January-December Partner Country U.S. $ (000) % Share % Change 2013 2014 2015 2013 2014 2015 2015/2014 World 94250 108928 99332 100.00 100.00 100.00 - 8.81 Russia 34704 39003 39211 36.82 35.81 39.47 0.53 Lithuania 17186 16776 13729 18.23 15.40 13.82 - 18.17 Poland 15702 16989 12851 16.66 15.60 12.94 - 24.36 Estonia 9610 12442 11693 10.20 11.42 11.77 - 6.01 Germany 7195 10459 5758 7.63 9.60 5.80 - 44.95 Belarus 573 812 2247 0.61 0.75 2.26 176.60 Finland 317 2344 2236 0.34 2.15 2.25 - 4.60 United Kingdom 112 11 2131 0.12 0.01 2.15 ∞ Romania 1454 1085 1175 1.54 1.00 1.18 8.25 Czech Republic 949 1250 1130 1.01 1.15 1.14 - 9.60 Austria 1500 1280 1058 1.59 1.18 1.07 - 17.37 Slovenia 628 1068 1012 0.67 0.98 1.02 - 5.25 France 237 258 820 0.25 0.24 0.83 218.12
China 1088 1062 810 1.15 0.97 0.82 - 23.70 Turkey 5 394 497 0.01 0.36 0.50 26.14 Belgium 199 198 495 0.21 0.18 0.50 150.45 Italy 498 367 446 0.53 0.34 0.45 21.60 Ireland 373 330 387 0.40 0.30 0.39 17.30 Sweden 198 219 383 0.21 0.20 0.39 74.57 Netherlands 277 318 371 0.29 0.29 0.37 16.49 Malaysia 87 512 245 0.09 0.47 0.25 - 52.18 Cyprus 352 884 212 0.37 0.81 0.21 - 75.97 Chile 90 154 79 0.10 0.14 0.08 - 48.56 Norway 68 35 75 0.07 0.03 0.08 116.74 Slovakia 416 226 57 0.44 0.21 0.06 - 74.78 Spain 6 211 40 0.01 0.19 0.04 - 81.04 Hungary 0 88 39 0.00 0.08 0.04 - 55.31 Brazil 0 19 32 0.00 0.02 0.03 69.17 Denmark 51 40 29 0.05 0.04 0.03 - 27.12 United States 128 74 29 0.14 0.07 0.03 - 61.18 Source:Eurostat Latvia’s Imports of Softwood and Treated Lumber per countries of origin, January-December Partner Country U.S. $ (000) % Share % Change 2013 2014 2015 2013 2014 2015 2015/2014 World 65382 112810 98187 100.00 100.00 100.00 - 12.96 Estonia 25927 39517 35923 39.65 35.03 36.59 - 9.09 Russia 10396 19226 28028 15.90 17.04 28.55 45.78 Belarus 8873 23251 18609 13.57 20.61 18.95 - 19.96 Finland 9322 14833 8593 14.26 13.15 8.75 - 42.07 Lithuania 8880 12045 4264 13.58 10.68 4.34 - 64.60 Sweden 1111 2073 1586 1.70 1.84 1.62 - 23.47 Source:Eurostat
Latvia’s Imports of Hardwood Lumber per countries of origin, January-December Partner Country U.S. $ (000) % Share % Change 2013 2014 2015 2013 2014 2015 2015/2014 World 5007 7658 8180 100.00 100.00 100.00 6.82 Ukraine 1667 2340 1679 33.30 30.55 20.52 - 28.25 Russia 281 531 1663 5.62 6.93 20.33 213.14 Germany 1379 1433 1651 27.54 18.72 20.18 15.17 Estonia 315 889 1379 6.29 11.61 16.86 55.08 Belarus 46 208 573 0.92 2.72 7.01 175.49 United States 199 484 246 3.98 6.32 3.01 - 49.07 Source: Eurostat
Trends in wood industry – demand from construction industry and wood energy sector. Latvia has one of the highest investment rates in Europe in wood and wood products and the most competitive labor force. Within the subsector, wood construction has the highest investment rate. Recently, significant investments have also been made in the production of particle board, OSB. According to the Ministry of Economy in Latvia, the growth of construction is largely related to public procurements and projects originating from EU funds. After a rapid increase in construction volume in the first half of 2014, the growth rate of the sector slowed down at the end of the year. In total, the growth of construction reached 8.1% in 2014. Construction volume of both residential and non-residential buildings had an equally rapid increase in 2014 (31.1% and 34.6% respectively). In the category of non-residential buildings, the construction volume of hotels and buildings of similar usage experienced the most rapid increase. In 2014 a moderate increase in volume could be observed in the construction of industrial buildings and warehouses. Construction volume of duplexes experienced the most rapid growth in the category of residential housing. In the first three quarters of 2015 the volume of building construction was 5.8% lower than the year before. In the category of residential buildings, the construction volume of single-apartment houses grew, while the volume of construction of apartment houses decreased significantly. By contrast, in the construction of non-residential buildings, a reduction in volume was mainly driven by a decrease in construction volume of wholesale and retail trade buildings, educational institutions, as well as administrative buildings, partly compensated by an increase in the construction volume of hotels, sports facilities, museums, as well as industrial buildings and warehouses. According to the European Economic Commission of the Organization of United Nations, the Latvian local market for forest products is influenced by a significant increase of solid wood biomass consumption in wood energy production and consumption sectors. Wood biomass demand was one of the main forest product market drivers in 2014 and continued to increase in 2015. In 2014 large scale heating and new cogeneration CHP plants increased wood consumption to 1,657 million m 3. Starting from 2016 a similar rapid wood consumption increase implemented in Lithuania, increased solid wood biomass consumption in all Baltic countries. Wood biomass products production also is impacting the forest industry strongly, increasing demand for premium and industrial pellets in EU increases pellet production activities in Latvia.
Policy The forest sector in Latvia is supervised by the Ministry of Agriculture. Together with stakeholders it drafts forest policy and development strategy, the use of forest resources, and hunting, and environment protection www.zm.gov.lv The agency responsible for supervising the implementation of legal provisions in forest management is the State Forest Service www.vmd.gov.lv State-owned forests are managed by the Latvian State Forests Stock Company which secures the state’s interest in terms of preserving and increasing the value of the forests and its’ value to the economy, www.lvm.lv
All forests managed by Latvian State Forests (Latvijas Valsts Meži) are certified in accordance with internationally approved FSC® Principles and Criteria. Since 2011 Latvian State Forests are also certified according to the PEFC scheme. PEFC certificates have been granted to all 8 of LVM forest management regions. The PEFC forest management certification is provided by leading certification bodies within Latvia: BM Trada Latvija and SIA SGS Latvija Ltd. Certified areas in private forests are increasing, but at a slow pace. Latvian timber industry associations Association Latvijas Mēbeles (Latvian Furniture) Skaistkalnes iela 1, Zemgales priekšpilsēta, Rīga, LV-1004, Latvia Phone: +371 67 228 374 Latvian Wood Construction Cluster Address: Kr. Barona iela 130 – korpuss 10, LV – 1012, Rīga, Latvia Telephone: 26611663 e-mail: gatis@woodhouses.lv Latvian Forest Owner’s Association Republikas Laukums 2-601, Roga, LV -1981 Latvia Phone: +371 67027079 e-mail: info@mezaipasnieki.lv Latvian Forest Industry Federation Skaistkalnes iela 1, Rīga, LV-1004, Latvia Phone +371 67067368 office@latvianwood.lv Latvian Forest Industry Federation works to develop Latvia’s forest sector together with other stakeholders. The main goal of the Federation is to meet different needs of the stakeholders, to establish a sustainable and stable economic environment for the sector, coordinate the stakeholders’ activity in creating forest and wood industry policy.
End of Report.
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Date d'inscription : 12/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: L'Agriculture Mondiale, Rogue One, Le Survivant et Y'becca    Sam 17 Déc à 3:42

THIS REPORT CONTAINS ASSESSMENTS OF COMMODITY AND TRADE ISSUES MADE BY USDA STAFF AND NOT NECESSARILY STATEMENTS OF OFFICIAL U.S. GOVERNMENT POLICY
Date:
GAIN Report Number:
Approved By:
Prepared By:
Report Highlights: There are no significant changes to report from the previous submission.
Abdul Ghani Wahab
Joani Dong
FAIRS Export Certificate Report 2016
Food and Agricultural Import Regulations and Standards - Certification
Malaysia
MY6009
11/18/2016
Required Report - public distribution
GAIN REPORT: FAIRS Export Certificate Annual 2016 Page 2
Table of Contents
Executive Summary .................................................................................................................................... 3
Section I. List of All Export Certificates Required By Government (Matrix) ...................................... 4
Section II. Purpose of Specific Export Certificate(s) ............................................................................... 7
Section III. Specific Attestations Required on Export Certificate(s) ..................................................... 7
Section IV. Government Certificate’s Legal Entry Requirements ....................................................... 11
Section V. Other Certification/Accreditation Requirements ................................................................ 11
Section VI. Other Relevant Reports ........................................................................................................ 12
APPENDIX I. HALAL EXPORT CERTIFICATE FOR MEAT PRODUCTS .................................. 13
APPENDIX II. MEAT & POULTRY EXPORT CERTIFICATE OF WHOLESOMENESS .......... 14
APPENDIX III. HEALTH CERTIFICATE FOR DAIRY PRODUCTS ........................................... 15
APPENDIX IV. SANITARY CERTIFICATE FOR DAIRY PRODUCTS ....................................... 16
APPENDIX V. CERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS (LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES) FOR SOFT CHEESE .................................................................................................................................................... 17
APPENDIX VI. VETERINARY HEALTH CERTIFICATE FOR PORK PRODUCTS ................. 18 Sample A .................................................................................................................................................... 18 Sample B .................................................................................................................................................... 19
APPENDIX VII. HEALTH CERTIFICATE FOR FISH AND SEAFOOD PRODUCTS ................ 20
APPENDIX VIII. FSIS LETTER CERTIFICATE FOR BEEF PRODUCTS ................................ 21
APPENDIX VIIII. APHIS PHYTOSANITARY CERTIFICATE ..................................................... 21
GAIN REPORT: FAIRS Export Certificate Annual 2016 Page 3
Executive Summary This report was prepared by the Office of Agricultural Affairs of the USDA/Foreign Agricultural Service in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia for U.S. exporters of domestic food and agricultural products. While every possible care was taken in the preparation of this report, information provided may not be completely accurate either because policies have changed since its preparation, or because clear and consistent information about these policies was unavailable. It is highly recommended that U.S. exporters verify the full set of import requirements with their foreign customers, who are normally best equipped to research such matters with local authorities, before any goods are shipped.
FINAL IMPORT APPROVAL OF ANY PRODUCT IS SUBJECT TO THE IMPORTING COUNTRY’S RULES AND REGULATIONS AS INTERPRETED BY BORDER OFFICIALS AT THE TIME OF PRODUCT ENTRY. On December 14, 2011 Malaysia notified the WTO on a regulation related to halal certification and labeling. According to this regulation, all imported food from the U.S. “intended to be consumed by Muslims” must be certified halal by one of the JAKIM-approved Islamic centers in the United States (http://www.halal.gov.my/v4/index.php/en/badan-islam/badan-luar-negara-diiktiraf). The regulation became effective January 1, 2012. Malaysia’s food processing and food service sectors are demanding halal certified ingredients and food. The halal certificate must accompany the shipment, and the products must be labeled with an approved Islamic Center’s halal logo on the packaging. All meat and livestock products (except pork) imported into Malaysia must be certified halal, and the products must originate from slaughterhouses which have been inspected and approved by the Department of Veterinary Services (DVS) and religious authorities (JAKIM – Department of Islamic Development Malaysia). An Islamic Center approved by JAKIM must supervise the slaughter and processing and issue the halal certificate for meat and poultry. The Islamic Center must be listed by the packing plant on the original JAKIM application form or the application must be appropriately amended to make use of a new Islamic Center. In July 2011, the Malaysian veterinary authority (DVS) imposed new requirements for pork abattoirs of exporting country. All raw pork products must originate from slaughterhouses which have been approved by the Malaysian veterinary. Health certificates accompanying shipments must include an establishment number of a plant the DVS has approved. DVS approved five U.S. pork plants (http://www.dvs.gov.my/en/238 under Amerika Syarikat) in September 2014.
GAIN REPORT: FAIRS Export Certificate Annual 2016 Page 4
Section I. List of All Export Certificates Required By Government (Matrix) : Product(s) Title of Certificate Attestation Required on Certificate Purpose Requesting Ministry (1) Milk and Milk Products Export Certificate for Animal Products (VS FORM 16-4 MAR 2010) OR Sanitary Certificate for Exports from USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service Additional certificate for soft cheeses: Certificate of Analysis for Listeria monocytogenes by competent authority of the exporting country Please refer to Section III Health & Veterinary Ministry of Agriculture, Malaysia & Ministry of Health, Malaysia (2) Beef Meat and Poultry Export Certificate of wholesomeness Certificate (FSIS Form 9060-5) Halal Export Certificate Please refer to FSIS Export Library : Meat Poultry Export Requirements for Malaysia (http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/international-affairs/exporting-products/export-library-requirements-by-country/malaysia) Health & Veterinary Halal certification Ministry of Agriculture, Malaysia & Ministry of Health, Malaysia Department of Islamic Development Malaysia (JAKIM) (3) Poultry or bird carcasses, products or part thereof (frozen, dried, Meat and Poultry Export Certificate of wholesomeness (FSIS Form 9060-5) Please refer to FSIS Export Library : Meat Poultry Export Requirements for Malaysia (http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/international-affairs/exporting-products/export-library-requirements-by-Veterinary & Health Ministry of Agriculture, Malaysia & Ministry of Health, Malaysia
GAIN REPORT: FAIRS Export Certificate Annual 2016 Page 5
dehydrated, salted, pickled, smoked or value-added) Halal Export Certificate country/malaysia) Halal Certification Department of Islamic Development Malaysia (JAKIM) (4) Frozen pork, dried, dehydrated, salted, pickled or smoked pork; or pork products thereof Veterinary Health Certificate Please refer to FSIS Export Library : Meat Poultry Export Requirements for Malaysia (http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/international-affairs/exporting-products/export-library-requirements-by-country/malaysia) Veterinary Ministry of Agriculture, Malaysia & Ministry of Health, Malaysia (5) Table eggs; frozen liquid eggs; salted, pickled or century eggs; egg powder or egg products thereof Veterinary Health Certificate Halal Export Certificate (for liquid eggs & egg powder) Please refer FSIS Export Library : Export Requirements for Egg Products (http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/international-affairs/exporting-products/requirements-for-processed-egg-products) Veterinary Halal Certification Ministry of Agriculture, Malaysia Department of Islamic Development Malaysia (JAKIM) (6) Pet food Export Certificate for Animal Products Please refer to USDA : APHIS : VS International Animal Product Export Regulations for Malaysia (http://www.aphis.usda.gov/regulations/vs/iregs/products/downloads/my_pf.pdf) Veterinary Ministry of Agriculture, Malaysia (7) Day-old chicks Veterinary Health Certificate Please refer to Section III Veterinary Ministry of Agriculture, Malaysia
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(Cool Animal By-Products; Bone meal/flour, meat meal, horn, hoof, feather or blood meal of caprine, ovine or avian origin Veterinary Health Certificate Please refer to USDA : APHIS : VS International Animal Product Export Regulations for Malaysia (http://www.aphis.usda.gov/regulations/vs/iregs/products/downloads/my_requirements.pdf) Veterinary Ministry of Agriculture, Malaysia (9) Swine (breeding) Veterinary Health Certificate Please refer to USDA : APHIS : VS International Animal Export Regulations for Malaysia (http://www.aphis.usda.gov/regulations/vs/iregs/animals/downloads/my_po_fed_my.pdf) (http://www.aphis.usda.gov/regulations/vs/iregs/animals/downloads/my_po_state_sarawak_my.pdf) Veterinary Ministry of Agriculture, Malaysia (10) Porcine Semen Veterinary Health Certificate Please refer to USDA : APHIS : VS International Animal Export Regulations for Malaysia (http://www.aphis.usda.gov/regulations/vs/iregs/animals/downloads/my_po_se_fed_my.pdf) Veterinary Ministry of Agriculture, Malaysia (11) Rabbits Veterinary Health Certificate Please refer to USDA : APHIS : VS International Animal Export Regulations for Malaysia (http://www.aphis.usda.gov/regulations/vs/iregs/animals/downloads/my_or.pdf) Veterinary Ministry of Agriculture, Malaysia (12) Horses Veterinary Health Certificate Please refer to Section III Veterinary Ministry of Agriculture, Malaysia (13) Fish and seafood products Health Certificate A declaration or statement by Federal or State Health Agency that the consignment is safe for human consumption. For shrimps and prawns; crab and crab products; whether in shell or not, live, fresh, chilled, frozen, dried, salted or in brine, cooked by steaming or by boiling in water: Additional declaration or statement Health Ministry of Health, Malaysia
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that the consignment is free from Chloramphenicol (14) Plant & Plant Products (corn, soybeans, cotton, citrus, etc) Phytosanitary Certificate (APHIS - PPQ Form 577) (http://www.aphis.usda.gov/import_export/plants/plant_exports/export_certificates_forms.shtml) To certify that the plant products are free from quarantine pests, and conform with the current phytosanitary regulations of the importing country. Additional declaration is required for each plant products. Please refer to Dept. of Agriculture Malaysia website: http://www.doa.gov.my/myimport Plant Health Ministry of Agriculture, Malaysia
Section II. Purpose of Specific Export Certificate(s) Please refer to the Matrix under Section I.
Section III. Specific Attestations Required on Export Certificate(s) 1. Milk and Milk Products A. Veterinary Health Certificate - the country of origin or part of country or state of origin has been free from foot-and-mouth disease and rinderpest for the past twelve (12) months prior to and till the date of export; - the milk or milk products were derived from herds/flocks that have been kept in the country in the preceding twelve (12) months prior to export;  the farm of origin have been certified free from tuberculosis and brucellosis by the Government Veterinary Authority of the exporting country; - the animals were found to be healthy and free from any clinical signs of infectious or contagious diseases (including ectoparasites) at the time of milking; - the milk or milk products were processed and packed in a plant that has been approved for export by the competent authority of the exporting country (the name, address and establishment number of the plant as well as batch/lot number and date of production must be clearly stated in the certificate); - the milk or milk products were processed, packed and stored under sanitary conditions and do not contain any preservatives, coloring matter, residue or any foreign substance or harmful material injurious to health and that every precaution had been taken to prevent contamination during the processing, packing, storing and handling prior to export;
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- The milk or milk products shall undergo the following process: - In case of milk or cream for human consumption, the milk used has been treated by ultra high temperature (UHT) at a minimum of 132 degrees C for at least 1 second or by simple high temperature short time pasteurization (HTST) at 72 degrees C for at least 15 seconds for milk with pH less than 7.0 or double HTST for milk with pH 7 or over; - Milk for animal consumption has been subjected to either double HTST or in case of simple HTST or UHT, this was combined with either physical treatment to maintain pH 6 for at least 1 hour or additional heating to at least 72 degrees C combined with desiccation; - in the case of milk or milk products intended for human consumption; that the milk or milk products destined for export to Malaysia are wholesome and fit for human consumption; - in the case of milk or milk products intended for purposes other than for human consumption; should be clearly identified and labeled (in RED) as "unfit for human consumption" or "not for human consumption" or "for animal use only" or "animal feeds" or "stock feeds." B. Sanitary Certificate for Export  The United States of America is free from Foot-and-Mouth Disease and Rinderpest;  The product was manufactured in facilities inspected and approved by the competent authority and subjected to regular audits or inspections aimed at ensuring that the processing is properly and hygienically carried out, to produce a product that is fit for human consumption;  The product was manufactured from milk that received a pasteurization treatment or adequate safeguards have been taken with the aim of avoiding public health hazards arising from pathogenic organisms associated with milk;  To the best of our knowledge, the product contains no harmful levels of contaminants; 2. Day-old chicks A. Veterinary Health Certificate - the country or part of country or state of origin has been continuously free from Newcastle disease and fowl plague for the past twelve (12) months prior to and till the date of export; - the chicks were hatched from eggs derived from a registered farm which is accredited to be free from Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella gallinarum and Salmonella typhimurium; and no case of fowl cholera, infectious bronchitis, infectious laryngotracheitis, infectious bursal disease, marek's disease, egg drop syndrome, swollen head syndrome, avian encephalomyelitis, salmonellosis and mycoplasmosis had been diagnosed or occurred on the farm in the preceding six (6) months prior to export;
GAIN REPORT: FAIRS Export Certificate Annual 2016 Page 9
- the chicks were hatched in a hatchery approved by the veterinary authority of the country of export and that no eggs from any other farm have been hatched in the same incubator at the same time; - the eggs and incubators used in the hatchery have been fumigated and disinfected prior to incubation; - the chicks were packed direct from the incubator in the hatchery into satisfactory clean and new disposable boxes for export, and had no contact with any bird other than day-old chicks originating from the same hatchery; - the day-old chicks destined for export to Malaysia have not been vaccinated against any disease except Marek's disease, using vaccine that is approved by the veterinary authority of the exporting country; - the day-old chicks destined for export to Malaysia have been examined by the registered veterinarian and found to be healthy and free from any clinical sign of infectious or contagious disease at the time of export. 3. Horses A. Veterinary Health Certificate - the country or part of country or area/farm of origin has been free from African horse sickness, Western, Eastern, and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis for the past two (2) years immediately preceding the date of export, and no vaccination is permitted in the country against African horse sickness; - the country or part of country or area/farm of origin has been free from glanders for the past twelve (12) months prior to date of export; OR the animals have been tested with mallein with negative result(s) within 10 days immediately preceding export; - the country or part of country or area/farm of origin has been free from trypanosomes for the past twelve (12) months immediately preceding the date of export; OR
 the animals have been tested for trypanosomes by inoculation of whole blood into mice/rats and examined by Giemsa stained blood smears every alternate day for a period of twenty-eight (28) days with negative results; - the country or part of country or area/farm of origin has been free from contagious equine metritis for the past twelve (12) months immediately preceding the date of export;
GAIN REPORT: FAIRS Export Certificate Annual 2016 Page 10
OR
The animals have never been mated and is gelded;
OR
the animals have been tested for the casual agent of contagious equine metritis by bacterial culture with negative results; - the animals have been kept in an area or farm where no cases of diseases stated below occurred for the past twelve (12) months: a) equine encephalomyelitis b) vesicular stomatitis and c) equine viral arteritis - the animals have been examined within forty-eight (48) hours of export and found to be healthy and free from clinical signs of any infectious or contagious disease including glanders, epizootic lymphangitis, ulcerative lymphangitis, dourine, horse-pox, sarcoptic mange, influenza, ringworm, strangles, infectious equine anaemia, equine encephalomyelitis, vesicular stomatis and equine viral arteritis; - The country or part of country or area/farm of origin has been free from equine infectious anemia and equine viral arteritis for the past twelve (12) month prior to date of export OR the animals have been tested in the laboratory approved by the government authority for the following diseases; a) Equine infectious anemia by immunodifusion (coggins)test with negative results within 30 days preceding export. b) Equine viral arteritis by serum neutralization test with negative results at dilution of 1 in 4 within 10 days preceding export.
- to the best of veterinary surgeon's knowledge and belief that, during the 3 months immediately preceding export, the animals have not suffered from any of the diseases listed below, have been in any premise farm on which these diseases have not occurred, nor had the horses otherwise been exposed to the risk of infection with these diseases: equine infectious anemia, equine viral encephalomyelitis, rabies, scabies,anthrax, glanders, dourine, strangles, epizootic lymphangitis, ulcerative lymphangitis, equine rhinopneumonitis, equine viral arteritis, babesiosis (piroplasmosis), Getah virus infection or any other diseases of equines notifiable in the country; - the animals have not been vaccinated with any vaccine within one (1) month of the date of shipment.
GAIN REPORT: FAIRS Export Certificate Annual 2016 Page 11
Section IV. Government Certificate’s Legal Entry Requirements
1. Each consignment of milk or milk products shall be accompanied by a veterinary health certificate dated within thirty (30) days of import and signed or endorsed by a competent veterinary officer of the Government Veterinary Authority of the country of export. Additional requirement for soft cheeses: Certificate of Analysis (COA)  All cheese made from unpasteurized milk imported into Malaysia must be accompanied by a Health Certificate and Certificate of Analysis (Listeria monocytogenes)  All soft/semi soft cheeses made from pasteurized milk imported into Malaysia must be accompanied by a Health Certificate and Certificate of Analysis (Listeria monocytogenes) 2. Each consignment of day-old chicks shall be accompanied by a veterinary health certificate dated within thirty (30) days of import and signed or endorsed by a competent veterinary officer of the Government Veterinary Authority of the country of export. 3. The consignment of animals (horses) shall be accompanied by a veterinary health certificate issued by a competent Veterinary Officer of the government veterinary authority of the country of export. 4. Each consignment of fish and seafood products shall be accompanied by a health certificate issued by Federal or State Health Agency. 5. Each consignment of tree nuts shall be accompanied by a Phytosanitary Certificate issued by agencies in-charge of quarantine in the exporting country/state.
Section V. Other Certification/Accreditation Requirements
1. Halal certification for meat and poultry products, Please refer to FSIS Export Library : Meat Poultry Export Requirements for Malaysia: (http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Regulations_&_Policies/Export_Information/index.asp) 2. Horses: A. Identity The animals should have an identity certificate or passport by a registered veterinary surgeon in the country of origin and further endorsed by a Government Veterinary Authority describing the age, breed, sex, color, markings or other points of identification of the horses. B. Description of Animal The consignment of animal shall be accompanied by a certificate containing a full description or identification of the animals.
GAIN REPORT: FAIRS Export Certificate Annual 2016 Page 12
C. Declaration by Master/Captain of the Ship/Aircraft The consignment of animals shall be accompanied by a certificate from the master/captain of the ship or aircraft in which the animals were carried stating that: - the animals have been embarked at port or airport in U.S.A. and had not landed at any intermediate port or airport during the flight/voyage to Malaysia. Stopovers of aircraft in Honolulu and Japan may be permitted or any other port as approved by the Director General of Veterinary Services, Malaysia. - no other animals were carried in the aircraft or ship during the time that the horses to which the certifications refer were on board the aircraft or ship. - no fodder other than from the country of origin was carried in the aircraft or ship during the time that the animals were on board the aircraft or ship. - the interior of the aircraft has been sprayed with an approved insecticide just prior to the departure from the airport.
Section VI. Other Relevant Reports - Malaysia Food and Agricultural Import Regulations and Standards (FAIRS) Annual Report 2016 (Report number: MY6008)
GAIN REPORT: FAIRS Export Certificate Annual 2016 Page 13
Appendix I. Electronic Copy or Outline of Each Export Certificate APPENDIX I. HALAL EXPORT CERTIFICATE FOR MEAT PRODUCTS
GAIN REPORT: FAIRS Export Certificate Annual 2016 Page 14
APPENDIX II. MEAT & POULTRY EXPORT CERTIFICATE OF WHOLESOMENESS (FSIS FORM 9060-5)
GAIN REPORT: FAIRS Export Certificate Annual 2016 Page 15
APPENDIX III. HEALTH CERTIFICATE FOR DAIRY PRODUCTS (VS FORM 16-4 MAR 2010)
GAIN REPORT: FAIRS Export Certificate Annual 2016 Page 16
APPENDIX IV. SANITARY CERTIFICATE FOR DAIRY PRODUCTS
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APPENDIX V. CERTIFICATE OF ANALYSIS (LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES) FOR SOFT CHEESE
GAIN REPORT: FAIRS Export Certificate Annual 2016 Page 18
APPENDIX VI. VETERINARY HEALTH CERTIFICATE FOR PORK PRODUCTS Sample A
GAIN REPORT: FAIRS Export Certificate Annual 2016 Page 19
Sample B
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APPENDIX VII. HEALTH CERTIFICATE FOR FISH AND SEAFOOD PRODUCTS
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APPENDIX VIII. FSIS LETTER CERTIFICATE FOR BEEF PRODUCTS For a sample of Letterhead Certificate for the Export of Beef and Beef Products to Malaysia, please click: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/wcm/connect/cc5a4f74-e679-4381-b464-c2dfdfacef52/bbmalaysia_246.pdf?MOD=AJPERES APPENDIX VIIII. APHIS PHYTOSANITARY CERTIFICATE For a sample of Phytosanitary Certificate PPQ Form 577, please click: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/import_export/plants/plant_exports/downloads/ppq577.pdf
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THIS REPORT CONTAINS ASSESSMENTS OF COMMODITY AND TRADE ISSUES MADE BY USDA STAFF AND NOT NECESSARILY STATEMENTS OF OFFICIAL U.S. GOVERNMENT POLICY
Date:
GAIN Report Number:
Approved By:
Prepared By:
Report Highlights: South Africa is the largest foodservice market in Sub-Saharan Africa, with a large and highly competitive hospitality industry. Hospitality and tourism are fast-growing sectors in the South African economy, offering a wide range of accommodations and attracting a mix of business and holiday travelers. Despite the impacts of the recent global economic recession and new restrictions on visitors entering the country, data released by Statistics South Africa shows a 14.4 percent increase in foreign visitors to South Africa in April 2016 compared to a year earlier, from 1.09 million visitors in April 2015 to 1.24 million in April 2016. Growth in international travel and rising room rates have bolstered the consumer foodservice market, despite the country’s weakened economy.
Margaret Ntloedibe
Abigail Nguema
South Africa HRI Sector Report 2016
Food Service - Hotel Restaurant Institutional
South Africa - Republic of
12/12/2016
Required Report - public distribution
SECTION 1: MARKET SUMMARY South Africa is the largest foodservice market in Sub-Saharan Africa, with a large and highly competitive hospitality industry. Hospitality and tourism are fast-growing sectors in the South African economy, offering a wide range of accommodation and attracting a mix of business and holiday travelers. Growth in international travel and rising room rates have bolstered the consumer foodservice market, despite the country’s weakened economy. Despite the impact of the recent global economic recession on the South African hospitality sector, data released by Statistics South Africa reveals that total income generated by the tourist accommodation industry increased by 13.8 percent in February 2016 compared with the previous year, whereas income from accommodation increased by 15.4 percent.
Total income generated by the South African food and beverage industry increased by 1.4 percent in January 2016 compared with January 2015. Both food and bar sales contributed positive annual growth rates of 1.0 percent and 6.4 percent respectively. In terms of sectors, the main contributors to the annual growth rate for January 2016 included restaurants and coffee shops at 4.4 percent, and catering services at 2.4 percent. Growth in the hotel industry is linked to foreign tourism, which is expected to grow considerably in the future due to expansion and major openings of hotels.
South Africa’s world-renowned wines and cuisine draw millions of tourists to the country, and tourism is a major contributor and one of the fastest growing sectors of the South African economy. It accounts for 8.3 percent to the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Tourism travel to South Africa has increased since the end of apartheid in 1994. According to recent tourism figures, numbers of international tourists to South Africa has increased. There were 1.24 million foreign visitors to South Africa in April 2016, an increase of 14.4 percent over the 1.09 million foreigners who visited the country in April 2015. The hospitality and tourism sector is dominated by independent and franchised foodservice players. It includes contract caterers who tailor their services and products to high-end consumers. In general, foodservice providors do not import food and beverages directly; instead they buy local and imported products from local manufacturers, wholesalers, and distributors. Convenience stores, shopping malls, supermarkets, and airports play a vital role in the industry. The foodservice industry is comprised of the commercial and institutional/service sectors. The commercial sector includes hotels, restaurants, fast food independents, fast food chains, clubs, and national parks/resorts. Within the commercial sector, the franchise industry continues to grow due to a shift in consumption away from eating at home. The institutional/service sector includes transport services, health (public and private hospitals), educational institutions, and prisons. It is dominated by a few large contract catering companies including Fedics (owned by Tsebo Outsourcing Group), Kagiso Khulani Supervision Food Services (owned by Compass Group Southern Africa), and Royal Mnandi (owned by Bidvest Group).
Table 1: Advantages and Challenges Facing U.S. Products in South Africa
Advantages
Challenges
South Africa is the gateway to regional
Markets. Visit the FAS website at www.fas.usda.gov for a list of promotional opportunities and trade shows in the country.
Strong competition from other countries and from local food producers. Price is still a strong decision making factor for the sector’s customers.
South Africans are developing a taste for western foods and are willing to try new products.
Consumers may need to be educated about how to prepare new products.
The growing HRI food industry needs imported food and beverage products.
Established tastes and preferences for traditional, locally-produced products.
Well-established HRI industry.
While sophisticated for a developing country, much of the U.S. technologies are far beyond the horizons of the most richly-resourced food companies.
South African HRI processors and importers seek suppliers who can offer reliable and quality products at competitive prices.
Challenges for U.S. suppliers to respond to trade inquiries in a timely manner. Also, South Africa is a smaller market and may not be able to deal in the volumes that U.S. companies are used to.
South African consumers view U.S. products as high quality.
Limited knowledge of the variety and quality of U.S. products.
English is one of the 11 official South African languages and virtually everyone is proficient in English.
Processors have long-standing relationships with European suppliers due to historical ties.
Importers and distributors can help develop heavy brand loyalty.
Consumers are price-conscious and some do not exhibit brand loyalty. Products must constantly be promoted.
South African importers seek consolidators of mixed containers at competitive prices.
Higher prices for U.S. food products relative to local market and neighboring countries’ products.
SECTION 2: ROAD MAP FOR MARKET ENTRY
2.1 Hotels and Resorts
There are an estimated 30,000 establishments in South Africa, ranging from one-star to five-star hotels, including game lodges, guest houses, self-catering venues, bed & breakfasts (B&Bs), and youth hostels. Out of all establishments, the B&Bs and game lodges represent the fastest growing segments of the tourism industry. Many establishments are owned by Anglo American and managed by the Premier Group. Premier and Anglo American also have extensive holdings in the milling, baking, dairy, fish, confectionery, and edible oils industries.
The Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (www.environment.gov.za) is responsible for the growth and the development of South Africa tourism. The Department has mandated the Tourism Grading Council of South Africa (www.tourismgrading.co.za) as an official ranking authority of tourism
establishments in the country. Establishments are graded from 1 Star up to 5 Stars, with 1 Star establishments offering very basic facilities and 5 Stars providing high-end offerings. The grading is displayed on most advertising material and at establishment entrances. The Council has graded approximately 8,000 establishments since 2003. Grading and registration fees are made available on the Tourism Grading website. Establishments are assessed according to the type of accommodation they provide:
 Bed & Breakfast (B&Bs)
 Guest houses
 Hotels
 Self-catering
 Backpacker and hostelling
 Caravans and camping
 Country houses
 Meetings, exhibitions and special events
 Restaurants
Prospects:
 Despite the economic recession, the long term outlook for the hotel industry remains healthy due to growth in hotel development.
 Foreign and domestic tourists are key sources of demand for hotel accommodations.
 The latest trend in hotel investment in South Africa has been joint ventures between local operators and overseas investors.
 Smaller and independent owners are benefiting from an injection of capital, infrastructure, and expertise enabling them to compete with large groups.
 The industry continues to benefit from the incentive of awards afforded by the National Department of Tourism through the “National Minimum Standards for Responsible Tourism” and the “Responsible Tourism Guidelines for the South African Hospitality Industry.” The awards encourage industry members to accept voluntary guidelines promoting responsible tourism.
 Tourism Grading Council managing the star grading system of all South Africa’s accommodation establishments to ensure quality accommodation offerings.
 Quality accommodation offerings in all of South Africa nine provinces. The cities of Johannesburg, Cape Town, and Durban are the major tourist attractions.
 The growth of the industry offers export opportunities to U.S. suppliers of food and beverage ingredients for hotels, restaurants, and the institutional food service sector.
2.1.1 Hotel Profiles
Most of the key hotels are owned by large locally listed companies and managed through agreements with international hotel management chains, in particular, Mercure Accor Hotel (French), Sheraton Group (U.S.), Hilton (U.S.), Legacy Hotels and Resorts (U.S.), and Days Inn (U.S.). In addition to major foreign tourism projects, two South African groups also have activities. One group is the Sun International Group, which runs hotels and resorts including the renowned Sun City Resort in Pilanesberg in the North West Province. Another one is the Protea Group, which runs the Protea Hotel chain. The table below provides an overview of some of the major hotel chains.
Table 2: Leading Hotel Chains in South Africa
Hotel Group
No. of
Hotels
Location
Purchasing
Agent Type
Mercure Accor
4
Major cities
Local agents
Sheraton Group
2
Major cities and tourist centers
Local agents
Hilton
6
Major cities
Local agents
Legacy Hotels &
Resorts
13
Major cities and
Tourist centers
Local agents
Sun International
Groups
49
Major cities and
Tourist centers
Local agents
Protea Group
74
Major cities and
Tourist centers
Local agents
2.1.2 Entry Strategy
Although the majority of the hotels are part of hotel chains, each one operates autonomously in terms of food purchases. In some cases the head office may recommend regional or national suppliers, but generally, hotels have free reign regarding what foods are served and whom their suppliers are. Dry groceries are usually sourced from catering wholesalers. Baked goods, fruits and vegetables, meat, and dairy products tend to be sourced from local specialist retailers. Many hotels also have in-house bakeries and contract caterers to run in-house restaurants.
2.1.3 Distribution Channel
In general, hotels do not import food and beverage products; instead they place their orders through local manufacturers, processors, wholesalers, specialty retailers and others. This is because most, if not all, hotel kitchens have a policy of holding only sufficient quantities of food and beverages for short-term needs. The following table lists sources of supply by percentage of the total.
Table 3: Suppliers to the Hotel Industry
Sources of supply
Percentage of total
Specialist Retailers
32
Direct from manufacturers
28
Catering wholesalers
20
Fresh Produce Market
12
Cash & Carry
5
General Retailer
3
TOTAL
100
2.2 Restaurants
Restaurants play an integral part in the tourism experience, with food and wine playing a major role for visitors. Foreign visitors spend approximately $30 per day on food and beverages during their trip to South Africa, which represents about 20 percent of the total daily expenditure. Since tourism is such an important source of revenue for the restaurant industry, the Tourism Grading Council is responsible for
the grading scheme. To have an effective scheme, the Grading Council continuously hosts countrywide road shows on restaurant grading in order to meet the Council’s target of all restaurants graded.
The Restaurant Association of South Africa (RASA) (www.restaurant.org.za) acts in the interest of the South African restaurant industry. RASA members include independent restaurants, fast food outlets, coffee shops, casual dining establishments, hospital canteens, mobile restaurants, and major franchise groups.
South Africa has a highly developed network of fast-food and chain restaurants and a well-established franchising model. In addition, the Franchise Association South Africa (FASA) (www.fasa.co.za) shows how people are opting to eat out more often than ever before. This shift is creating opportunities in the restaurant industry. However, fast food restaurants are facing increased competition from supermarkets, retail chains, and convenience stores as they also offer readymade meals.
Trends:
 Less dining out by consumer as consumers searched for value-for-money take home menu offerings.
 Local brands continue to dominate food service despite the increasing presence of international players.
 Convenience and health continue to be key demand factors for busy South Africans.
2.2.1 Fast Food
South Africa boasts a large number of domestic and international restaurant chains. These include Yum! Brands Inc. (KFC); Famous Brands Ltd. (Wimpy, Debonairs Pizza, Steers, FishAway, and Milky Lane); McDonald’s Corp. (McDonald’s); Nando’s Group Holidings Ltd. (Nando’s); Taste Holdings Ltd (Fish & Chips Co, and Maxi’s); Traditional Brands (Old Fashioned Fish & Chips); and King Pie Holdings (King Pie). According to the trade press, Yum brands led the South African fast food market in 2015 with a 23 percent market share, due to the popularity of KFC.
Table 4: Fast Food Chains by Share of Market Value (2015)
Global Brand Owner
Brand
Percent Market Share
Yum! Brands Inc.
KFC
23
Famous Brands Ltd.
Wimpy, Debonairs Steers, Wimpy, Pizza, FishAway, Milky Lane
13
McDonald’s Corp.
McDonalds
11
Nando’s Group Holdings Ltd.
Nandos
7
Source: Euromonitor
2.2.2 Entry Strategy and Trends
 To maintain price competitiveness, offer smaller menu items at lower prices.
 Expand fast food outlets to rural and historically disadvantaged areas.
 The South African fast food market continues to witness strong growth due to healthy fast food offerings to appeal to increasingly health-conscious consumers.
 Fast food growth and expansion in “braai” (barbecue) outlets, burger restaurants, and savory pie operators.
 Chain grocery retailers’ expansion of foodservice offerings and introduction of in-store kiosks to include bakeries, hot-food, and ready meals.
 Fast food is forecast to increase despite global economic recession.
2.2.3 Distribution Channel
Table 5: Suppliers to the Restaurant Industry
Sources of Supply
Percentage of Total
Specialist retailers
42
Catering wholesalers
23
Manufacturers/distributors
20
Cash & Carry
8
General retailers
5
Fresh produce markets
2
TOTAL
100
2.3 Institutional Food Service
Currently, the South African institutional sector is valued at $71 million, and 80 percent of the market is operated via state tenders and parastatals. This sector constitutes a very large market for food and beverages and includes various institutions and services providers. It is estimated that only 28 percent of public sector catering and 55 percent of private sector catering has been out-sourced to contract caterers. As with the rest of the South African food industry, this sector is fairly concentrated and is dominated by a relatively few large catering companies. The South African food services contract caterers include Fedics, RoyalMnandi, KKS, Feedem Pitseng, and Bosana.
2.3.1 Profile of Major Contract Caterers
Table 6: Leading South African Contract-Catering Companies
Name and business
Type
Ownership
Location
Purchasing
Agent Type
Fedics (Pty) Ltd
Tsebo Outsourcing Group
nationwide
Local agents
Royal Mnandi
Bidvest Group
nationwide
Local agents
Kagiso Khulani
Supervision Food
Services (KKS)
Compass Group
Southern
Africa
nationwide
Local agents
Feedem Pitseng Pty Ltd
Independent owners
Nationwide and Africa
Local agents
Bosasa Catering Services
Bosasa Group
Nationwide
Local agents
2.3.2 Entry Strategy
 In general, contract caterers do not import food and beverages but instead purchase products directly from the local manufacturers, catering wholesalers, and distributors on a contract basis.
 Companies operating their own canteens usually buy food, when needed, from catering wholesalers and localized specialist retailers, as this is more convenient when buying small quantities.
2.3.3 Distribution Channel
Table 7: Suppliers to the Contract-Catering Industry
Source of Supply
Percentage of Total
Specialist retailers
46
Manufacturers/distributors
33
Catering wholesalers
10
Fresh Produce Markets
5
General retailers
4
Cash & Carry
2
Total
100
2.4 Market Entry Flow Chart for U.S. Exporters
The following chart provides an overview of the usual distribution channel for imported food products from U.S. exporters to food processors.
SECTION 3: COMPETITION
South Africa is a member of the World Trade Organization and holds multilateral and bilateral trade agreements with several other nations.
Product Category
Major Supply Sources
Strengths of key Supply Countries
Advantages and Disadvantages of Local Suppliers
Red Meats Fresh/Chilled/Frozen
Botswana – 19%
Namibia –
The pattern of imports in this category is variable and depends largely on local conditions, including
South Africa produces very high quality beef.
U.S. exporter (this chart can also apply to the domestic supplier)
Importer/
Agent
Distributor
Food Processor
Retail
HRI
Net imports from the world of $124 million in 2016 versus $152 million in 2015.
Note: SA net exports were $134 million in 2016 versus $134 in 2015.
19%
Spain - 14%
USA is an insignificant supplier.
quality and competitive pricing by the suppliers. Germany a leading supplier due to Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with South Africa as a member of the European Union.
Poultry Meat
Net imports of $277 million in 2016 versus $281 million in 2015.
Note: SA net exports were $61 million in 2016 versus $70 million in 2015.
Brazil – 29%
Netherlands – 27%
United Kingdom – 11%
USA is a minor supplier with a 5% market share.
Brazil and EU countries remain leading trading partner for South Africa in terms of poultry due to its FTA with South Africa.
Domestic demand for poultry meat is growing and outpaces the performance of any other proteins on the market. Domestic producers are unable to meet consumption needs. South Africa’s major chicken producers are Astral foods, Rainbow Chickens, Pioneer Foods, Sovereign and Dagbreek.
Turkey Meat
Net imports of $21 million in 2016 versus $20 million in 2015.
Note: SA net exports were $2 million in 2016 versus $3 million in 2015.
Brazil –55%
Canada – 18%
United Kingdom – 11%
USA is a minor supplier with a 5% market share.
Competition, price and quality are the key strengths of these suppliers. With the growing trend towards healthier lifestyles, turkey products are becoming popular.
South Africa is a net importer of turkey meat products. Local production is inadequate since turkey meat is not a South African favorite, and is not commonly consumed except during Christmas time. However, the trend is changing, as turkey is starting to appear more on restaurant menus.
Fish and Seafood Products
Net imports of $369 million in 2016 versus $302 million in 2015.
Note: SA net exports were $369 million in 2016 versus $364 million in 2015.
Namibia – 27%
Thailand – 16%
India – 11%
USA is an insignificant supplier.
Despite being a net exporter, South Africa imports continue to increase to supplement domestic demand.
Major South African fish traders and processors are Sea Harvest (owned by Tiger brands); Irvin and Johnson (AVI), Oceana, Premier Foods, and Sekunjalo.
Dairy Products excluding cheese
Net imports of $64 million in 2016 versus $100 million in 2015.
Note: SA net exports were $130 million in 2016 versus $159 million 2015.
France – 23%
New Zealand – 18%
Ireland – 13%
USA - 7%
Despite being a net exporter, South Africa imports continue to increase to supplement domestic demand.
South Africa is a net importer of dairy products particularly whey, concentrated milk and cream to supplement insufficient domestic production.
Pulses
Net imports of $44 million in 2016 versus $43 million in 2015.
Note: SA net exports were $12 million in 2016 versus $8 million in 2015.
China – 37%
Canada – 17%
Botswana – 9%
USA minor supplier with 3% market share.
China enjoys a bilateral trade agreement with South Africa. Domestic production is insufficient to cover local demand so imports supplement domestic demand.
South Africa is a net importer of pulses. Pulses are an important protein source in the South African diet and imports make up for the shortfall between domestic production and demand. Also, pulses are highly seasonal, imported from November – March in 50kg bags. Pulses are used by South African manufacturers for further processing in soups and broths.
Vegetable Oils Exc. Soybean oil
Indonesia – 43%
A shortage of domestically-produced oils has led to supplementing with
South Africa is a net importer of edible oil productions. Local producers are unable to
Net imports of $380 million in 2016 versus $324 million in 2015.
Note: SA net exports were $104 million in 2016 versus $88 million in 2015.
Malaysia – 25%
Spain – 9%
USA is an insignificant supplier.
unrefined oil imports, which are refined and packaged by local oil expressers. Malaysia provides quality and competitive prices.
meet demand due to crop size.
Sugar/Sweetener/Beverage Bases
Net imports of $74 million in 2016 versus $125 million in 2015.
Note: SA net exports were $61 million in 2016 versus $89 million in 2015.
Swaziland – 23%
China – 14%
Brazil – 13%
USA is a minor supplier.
A growing domestic demand calls for imported products from competitive suppliers.
South Africa is a leading producer and a net exporter of sugar-related products. Local production is sufficient to meet demand.
Breakfast Cereal/Pancake Mix
Net imports of $6 million in 2016 versus $6 million in 2015.
Note: SA net exports were $76 million in 2016 versus $58 in 2015.
United Kingdom – 34%
United States – 12%
Germany – 11%
Imports from competitive suppliers supplements supply.
South Africa is a net exporter of breakfast cereal products. Local production is sufficient to meet demand.
Fruit & Vegetable Juices
Net imports of $57 million in 2016 versus $56 million in 2015.
Note: SA net exports were $191 million in 2016 versus $214 million in 2015.
China – 49%
Argentina – 21%
Spain – 6%
USA is an insignificant supplier.
Potential exports to South Africa are for exotic fruits and vegetables such as berries, kiwi fruits, and out-of-season fruits and vegetables from competitive suppliers.
South Africa is a net exporter and self-sufficient in basic fruit and vegetable requirements.
Processed Fruit & Vegetables
Net imports of $113 million in 2016 versus $119 million in 2015.
Note: SA net exports were $369 million in 2016 versus $382 million in 2015.
China – 24%
Swaziland – 10%
Italy – 9%
USA - 8%.
Opportunities exist for competitive suppliers of grape and apple juice which are used as a base for other fruit juices, prepared and preserved tomatoes, and fruit pulp.
South Africa is a net exporter, and domestic production is sufficient to cover local demand.
Wine and Beer
Net imports of $59 million in 2016 versus $73 million in 2015.
Note: SA net exports were $526 million in 2016 versus $556 million in 2015.
Namibia – 51%
France – 26%
Mexico – 4%
USA is an insignificant supplier.
Due to the rapid increase in exports of South African wines which creates a niche for specialty wines and beers from competitive suppliers.
South Africa is a net exporter of wine and beer, particularly wine of fresh grapes. The South African wine industry is relatively large and extensive ranked seventh in world output. South Africans’ tastes and preferences are becoming more sophisticated and the average consumer is increasingly expecting a wide range of wine and beer.
Distilled spirits
Net imports of $191 million in 2016 versus $217 million in 2015.
Note: SA net exports were $91 million in 2016 versus $110
United Kingdom – 59%
France – 15%
USA – 6%
Sophisticated tastes and preferences of South Africans calls for a range of whiskey products. UK continues to be leading trade supplier of this category. Despite lack of brand awareness of U.S. whisky products among south African consumers, the U.S. saw an increase in whisky exports.
South Africa is a net importer of distilled spirits particularly whiskies. Local production is not enough to meet local demand.
million in 2015.
Source: GTA
SECTION 4: BEST PRODUCT PROSPECTS
A. Products in the market which have good sales potential
Product Category
Jan – Sept 2016 South Africa Imports from the World ($1,000,000)
Jan – Sept 2016 U.S. Exports to S.A. ($1,000,000)
Percentage of Annual Import Growth U.S.
U.S. Import Tariff Rate
Key Constraints Over Market Development
Market Attractiveness for U.S.
Chicken cuts and edible Offal (Inc. livers)
020714
294
12
8410.13
12%
Free from the EU countries
South Africa is a net importer chicken cut products. Netherlands holds 34% market share with USA a minor supplier of 6% market share.
Almonds (shelled nuts) HS080212
17
14
-2.59
free
Free from the EU countries
U.S. has largest market share of 86% due to quality and price. South Africa produces only pecans and macadamia nuts.
Salmon HS160411
857
238
-26.09
6c/kg
6c/kg
U.S. has 28% market share after Norway with 65%.
Glucose and Glucose Syrup HS170240
2.8
5.0
-34.58
free
Free from the EU countries
U.S. has 19% market share after Turkey and China with 53% and 24% market share respectively.
Protein Concentrates HS210610
8
4
-19.30
10-20%
EU countries import tariff rate to enter South Africa is free to 2.6%
U.S. has the largest market share of 51%.
Food Preparations HS210690
118
19
-4.43
Varied from free, 5-20%, and 154c/liter for alcoholic preparations.
Varied and from the EU countries import tariff rate is free to 2.6%.
U.S. has the largest market share of 16%.
Sauces, condiments and seasonings HS210390
15
6
52
5-20%
From the EU countries import tariff rate is free to 2.6%.
U.S. has the largest market share of 43%.
Source: GTA
B. Products not present in significant quantities but which have good sales potential
Product Category
Jan – Sept 2016 South Africa Imports from the World ($1,000,000)
Jan – Sept 2016 U.S. Exports to S.A. ($1,000,000)
Percentage of Annual Import Growth U.S.
U.S. Import Tariff Rate
Key Constraints Over Market Development
Market Attractiveness for U.S.
Sausage casings (HS0504)
53
6
236
free
South Africa is a net importer of sausage casing products. The import tariff rate is free from both the U.S and the EU countries. USA has 10% market share after China and Germany with 57% and 10% of market share respectively.
Flour and meal of dried leguminous vegetables (HS1106)
2
.197
3.40
Free to 20%
From EU countries free to 2.6%
U.S has a market share of 10%, after Zimbabwe and Hong Kong with 29% and 28% market share respectively.
Vegetable Saps and Extracts (HS1302)
14
2
10.76
Free to 25%
EU countries duty free to 3.25%
U.S. has the largest market share of 13%.
Fats and oils (HS1504)
1
.179
59.48
Duty free
Duty free from EU
U.S. has a market share of 17% after Norway with 43%.
Prepared foods obtained by the swelling or roasting of cereal products (HS1904)
6
.733
6.28
5c/kg to 25%
EU countries duty free to 3.25%.
U.S. has 12% market share after United Kingdom with 34%.
Bread, pastry, cakes, and biscuits (ingredients) (HS1905)
39
1
-45.37
3.6c/kg to 25%
EU countries duty free to 2.73%.
U.S. a minor supplier of 3% market share, after Malaysia and Saudi Arabia with 12% and 10% market share respectively.
Ethyl alcohol, spirits, and liqueurs (HS2208)
190
11
-10.29
136c/liter to 154c/liter including additional costs of R2.31/Liter to R93.03/liter levied on customs and excise respectively.
From EU countries R17.68c/liter to R20.02c/liter including additional costs ofR38.oo/liter to R93.03 levied on both the Customs, and Excise duties.
U.S. a minor supplier of 6% market share, after United Kingdom and France with 59% and 15% of market share respectively.
Source: GTA
C. Products not present because they face significant barriers
None.
SECTION 5: POST CONTACT AND FURTHER INFORMATION
For further information about exporting U.S. food and beverage products to South Africa, please contact AgPretoria at the following address:
Foreign Agricultural Service
U.S. Embassy Pretoria, South Africa
Washington, D.C., 20521-9300
Tel: +27 12 431 4057
Fax: +27 12 342 2264
Email: agpretoria@fas.usda.gov
For other market sector reports available to the public, including the Exporter Guide, Retail Sector report, and Food Processing Sector report, please visit the Foreign Agricultural Service’s website at http://www.fas.usda.gov.
Sources: Industry websites, Trade Press, Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Global Trade Atlas, and Statistics South Africa.
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MessageSujet: Re: L'Agriculture Mondiale, Rogue One, Le Survivant et Y'becca    Sam 17 Déc à 3:44

THIS REPORT CONTAINS ASSESSMENTS OF COMMODITY AND TRADE ISSUES MADE BY USDA STAFF AND NOT NECESSARILY STATEMENTS OF OFFICIAL U.S. GOVERNMENT POLICY
-
Date:
GAIN Report Number:
Post:
Report Categories:
Approved By:
Prepared By:
Report Highlights: Poland remains the major producers of poultry meat in the European Union. It is estimated that in 2016 poultry production will increase by an additional 15 percent in comparison to 2015. Higher output of poultry meat is stimulated by growing domestic consumption and export demand. Although the majority of poultry meat exports are directed to the internal EU market the industry and the Polish government are trying to open new markets including obtaining eligibility to export to the United States. It is expected that due to reduction of prices for poultry meat on the domestic market and declining export demand, production of poultry meat in the first half of 2017 will be five percent higher than in the same period of 2016.
General Information:
Piotr Rucinski, Agricultural Specialist
Russ Nicely, Agricultural Attaché
Poultry and Products
Poland maintains its leading position in the EU.
Warsaw
Poland
12/9/2016
Public
Voluntary
I. Poultry Meat Production In 2015 Polish poultry production amounted to 2,386,000 MT and was 7 percent higher than in the previous year. The increase of production stems from growing domestic consumption, as consumers substitute beef with poultry which is perceived as healthier and cheaper meat, and increasing exports mainly to other EU member states. Poultry meat production consists mainly of chicken broilers (81%), turkey broilers (14%) which are in demand for the domestic meat processing industry, and ducks and geese which are mainly exported to Western Europe, mainly Germany. A low level of prices for compound feeds and continuing export demand for exports are expected to stimulate poultry meat production in 2016. It is estimated that in 2016 poultry production will increase by additional 15 percent in comparison to 2015. However, it is forecast that due to the reduction of prices for poultry meat on the domestic market and declining export demand production for poultry meat in the first half of 2017 will slow down to seven percent compared to the same period of 2016. Poultry meat production is based on locally produced grains (mainly corn) and 2 million tons of soybean meal imported mainly from South America or the United States. Consumption It is estimated that in 2016 annual consumption of poultry meat will amount to 28.5 kilograms per capita, almost five percent higher than in 2015. Poultry meat remains the cheapest meat on Polish market, which stimulates consumption. Since 2013 there is a trend of decrease of retail prices for poultry meat. In 2015 retail prices for poultry meat declined by four percent in comparison to 2014. In the first eight months of 2016 retail prices for poultry meat decreased by additional 1.6 percent in comparison to the same period of 2015. Although pork remains the most preferred meat for Polish consumers with annual per capita consumption at 40 kilograms, poultry meat is perceived as a healthy and cheap alternative for consumers. In addition, the Polish meat processing industry specialized in production of poultry sausages and pates which imitate pork products. It is forecast that in 2017 poultry consumption will increase by an additional two percent because of higher production and a decrease in retail prices. Poultry meat constitutes 38 percent of total meat consumption in Poland compared to 55 percent for pork and only two percent for beef. It is estimated that consumption of poultry from back yard production amounts to 6.5 percent of total poultry meat production.
2016 – FAS Warsaw estimate 2017 – FAS Warsaw forecast Trade In 2015 export of poultry meat amounted to 698,970 MT and was 20 percent higher than in 2014. However, in 2015 the value of Polish exports of poultry meat amounted to U.S. $1.3 billion and was almost the same as in 2014, reflecting a drop of export prices in 2015. It is estimated that in 2015 some 30 percent of Poland’s poultry meat production was destined for export. It is expected that exports will grow in 2016 because of continued demand from the EU and Asian markets. The major export destinations of Polish poultry meat within the EU are the UK, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Czech Republic. Outside of the EU Poland exports poultry meat to Hong Kong, China and Congo. The Polish poultry meat industry is highly integrated and export oriented. Although the majority of exports are directed to the internal EU market, the industry and Polish government are trying to open new markets including obtaining eligibility to export to the United States. Imports of poultry meat are stable and consist mainly of chicken and turkey cuts imported from Germany, the UK and Hungary. In 2015 the value of imports of poultry meat amounted to U.S.$ 76 million, a two percent increase in comparison to 2014 because of higher imports of frozen chicken cuts and edible offal from Slovakia.
Exports of Chicken Meat (000 MT)
2016 – FAS Warsaw estimate I. Eggs and Egg Products Production In 2015 production of eggs in Poland amounted to 590,000 MT and was 0.7 percent higher than in 2014. Increase of production was stimulated by cheap feed and higher export. It is estimated that in 2016 production of eggs will increase by another two percent, mainly due to low prices of feed and growing export demand. Trade In 2015, export of eggs in Poland increased by 14 percent mainly because of higher exports to Germany and Czech Republic. Germany, the Netherlands and Italy remain the main outlets for Polish table eggs, while Germany, the Czech Republic, the Netherlands, and Denmark were the main outlet for processed eggs. In the first eight months of 2016 Polish exports of table eggs were eight percent higher than in the same period of 2015, because of growing sales to Germany. End of Report.
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MessageSujet: Re: L'Agriculture Mondiale, Rogue One, Le Survivant et Y'becca    Sam 17 Déc à 3:46

The following Global Agricultural Information Network (GAIN) reports were released on Thursday, December 15, 2016.



China: China Approves Market Access of U.S. Sugar Beet Pulp Pellets
On September 26, 2016, China’s General Administration for Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ) published “AQSIQ Announcement (2016 No. 97) Inspection and Quarantine Requirements for Importing U.S. Sugar Beet Pulp.” AQSIQ also lists 16 U.S. sugar beet pulp facilities approved to export U.S. sugar beet pulp to China. This report contains an UNOFFICIAL translation of the AQSIQ Announcement (2016 No. 97) Inspection and Quarantine Requirements for Importing U.S.Sugar Beet Pulp.

India: Indian Food and Agricultural Trade Show Calendar 2017
This report provides a list of food, beverage and agricultural shows held in India. The Indian trade show industry holds a large number of shows dedicated to the various aspects of the food and agricultural industry. Indian ag, fishery, and forestry imports and exports in 2015 were, respectively $25 billion and $35 billion.

Japan: Japan Moves Forward on Expanded COOL Requirements for Ingredients
Japan’s Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries (MAFF) and its Consumer Affairs Agency (CAA) presented their draft interim report on expanding Japan’s Country of Origin Labeling (COOL) requirements for ingredients to the public at a meeting held on November 2, 2016. The new rule requires Japanese food manufacturers to identify the country(ies) where the product’s main ingredient, by weight, was manufactured on the label of the product. If a series of approval steps are cleared, the new rule could come into effect as early as next summer.

Latvia: Livestock and Products Annual
In 2015 swine inventories decreased by four 4 percent due to reduced prices and export restrictions of pork caused by outbreaks of African Swine Fever (ASF). The outbreak of ASF and continuation of the Russian import ban in 2016 are the major factors adversely affecting the Latvian swine production later in 2016 and in 2017. Production of pork in 2016 is expected to increase by seven percent because of reduction of inventories and higher slaughter stemming from unfavorable economic conditions for swine production. Cattle inventories are expected to increase in 2016 because growing numbers of beef cattle will offset reduction in the dairy cow herd.

Latvia: Poultry Production in Latvia Continues to Grow
Latvia is a net importer of poultry meat. It is estimated that in 2016 poultry meat production will increase by 10 percent as a result of growing domestic demand and reduced imports. In 2015 production of eggs grew by eight percent because of increased demand for export to the United States. It is expected that in 2016 production of eggs will decline because of reduced exports.

Latvia: Wood Sector in Latvia
Latvia’s wood and wood products sector has slowly recovered from the economic recession experienced before 2010. In 2014 the total volume of timber harvested remained at the level of previous year amounting to 11.7 million m3. Intensive changes are noticed in the prefabricated wood (panel) modular house production industry. Production capacities are focusing on growing demand in North European countries. Prefabricated house production expansion also is a positive influence for the carpentry industry. In 2015 Latvia imported U.S. $ 771.79 million worth of forestry products.

Malaysia: FAIRS Export Certificate Report
There are no significant changes to report from the previous submission.

Poland: Poland Maintains its Leading Position in the EU
Poland remains the major producers of poultry meat in the European Union. It is estimated that in 2016 poultry production will increase by an additional 15 percent in comparison to 2015. Higher output of poultry meat is stimulated by growing domestic consumption and export demand. Although the majority of poultry meat exports are directed to the internal EU market the industry and the Polish government are trying to open new markets including obtaining eligibility to export to the United States. It is expected that due to reduction of prices for poultry meat on the domestic market and declining export demand, production of poultry meat in the first half of 2017 will be five percent higher than in the same period of 2016.

South Africa: Food Service - Hotel Restaurant Institutional
South Africa is the largest food service market in Sub-Saharan Africa, with a large and highly competitive hospitality industry. Hospitality and tourism are fast-growing sectors in the South African economy, offering a wide range of accommodations and attracting a mix of business and holiday travelers. Despite the impacts of the recent global economic recession and new restrictions on visitors entering the country, data released by Statistics South Africa shows a 14.4 percent increase in foreign visitors to South Africa in April 2016 compared to a year earlier, from 1.09 million visitors in April 2015 to 1.24 million in April 2016. Growth in international travel and rising room rates have bolstered the consumer foodservice market, despite the country’s weakened economy.



For more information, or for an archive of all FAS GAIN reports, please visit gain.fas.usda.gov.
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MessageSujet: Re: L'Agriculture Mondiale, Rogue One, Le Survivant et Y'becca    Sam 17 Déc à 3:48

Une nébuleuse (du latin nebula, nuage) désigne, en astronomie, un objet céleste composé de gaz raréfié, ionisé et/ou de poussières interstellaires. Avant les années 1920, le terme désignait tout objet du ciel d’aspect diffus. Étudiées par des astrophysiciens spécialisés dans l'étude du milieu interstellaire, les nébuleuses jouent un rôle clé dans la formation des étoiles.

Sommaire

1 Histoire
2 Formation stellaire
3 Types de nébuleuses
3.1 Nébuleuses planétaires
3.2 Rémanents de supernova
3.3 Bulles de Wolf-Rayet
3.4 Régions HII
3.5 Nébuleuses par réflexion
3.6 Nébuleuses obscures
4 Nébuleuses particulières
5 Notes et références
6 Voir aussi
6.1 Articles connexes
6.2 Liens externes

Histoire
Article connexe : Grand Débat (astronomie).

Le terme de nébuleuse est utilisé jusqu'au début du XXe siècle pour désigner tout objet céleste d’aspect diffus. À partir des années 1920, l'astronome Edwin Hubble montre que l'aspect alors nébuleux de certains astres (les galaxies) n'est dû qu'à la résolution insuffisante des instruments utilisés.

Depuis cette époque, on entend par nébuleuse toute région du milieu interstellaire particulièrement riche soit en gaz (le plus souvent de l'hydrogène), soit en poussière interstellaire, soit des deux. Charles Messier a dressé à partir de 1781 un catalogue de 110 objets : des nébuleuses, mais aussi des amas d'étoiles et des galaxies.
Formation stellaire
Articles détaillés : nuage moléculaire et naissance des étoiles.

Les nébuleuses peuvent former des systèmes d'étoiles en s'effondrant sous l'effet de la gravitation. Ainsi, le système solaire se serait formé à partir d’une nébuleuse solaire. Ce scénario a été évoqué pour la première fois au cours de la seconde moitié du XVIIIe siècle par Kant et Laplace.
Types de nébuleuses

On distingue 2 grandes familles de nébuleuses :

les nébuleuses diffuses, qui émettent ou réfléchissent de la lumière,
les nébuleuses obscures, qui bloquent la lumière.

Les nébuleuses peuvent être subdivisées en six types.
Nébuleuses planétaires
À 650 al, la nébuleuse de l'hélice (NGC 7293) est une des nébuleuses planétaires les plus proches de la Terre.
Article détaillé : Nébuleuse planétaire.

Les nébuleuses planétaires sont des nébuleuses en émission qui sont la marque d'une étoile de faible masse en fin de vie et préfigurent le destin du Soleil. Souvent petites, rondes et relativement brillantes, les astronomes les ont longtemps confondues avec des planètes, d'où leur nom. Les astronomes savent maintenant que les nébuleuses planétaires n'ont aucun rapport avec les planètes. Quand une petite étoile (moins de huit masses solaires) vieillit et a fini de consommer tout son hydrogène, puis son hélium, son cœur s'effondre pour former une naine blanche, tandis que les couches externes sont expulsées par la pression de radiation. Ces gaz forment un nuage de matière qui s'étend autour de l'étoile à une vitesse d'expansion de 20 à 30 kilomètres par seconde. Ce nuage est ionisé par les photons ultraviolets émis par l'étoile qui est devenue très chaude. Elles jouent un rôle crucial dans l'enrichissement de notre univers, transformant l'hydrogène primordial en éléments plus lourds et expulsant ces nouveaux éléments dans le milieu interstellaire. La première nébuleuse planétaire découverte fut la nébuleuse de l'Haltère dans la constellation du Petit Renard, observée par Charles Messier en 1764. Ce sont des objets qui évoluent assez rapidement, sont souvent très colorés et leurs images sont parmi les plus spectaculaires.
Rémanents de supernova
Nébuleuse du Crabe, un rémanent de la supernova de l'an 1054.
Article détaillé : Rémanent de supernova.

Les rémanents de supernova sont des nébuleuses en émission très étendues et sont le résultat de l'explosion violente d'une étoile de masse élevée. Elles arborent souvent une structure filamenteuse caractéristique qui évoque de la dentelle.

Il existe deux voies possibles pour créer une supernova :

Une étoile massive qui arrête de générer de l'énergie de son cœur et finit par s'effondrer sous l'effet de sa propre gravité. On parle de supernova à effondrement de cœur. Alors que l'étoile massive fait plus de 8 masses solaires, le résidu compact fait de l'ordre de 1,5 masse solaire.
une naine blanche ayant accumulé assez de matière provenant d'une étoile voisine ou entrant en collision avec pour atteindre la masse critique qui engendre une explosion thermonucléaire. On parle de supernova thermonucléaire. Dans le cas où il y a accrétion de matière et non collision, l'étoile compagnon peut éventuellement survivre à l'explosion. L’étoile qui est réduite ne laisse pas de résidu compact derrière elle.

La première supernova observée date de 1885, dans la galaxie d'Andromède (SN 1885A)
Bulles de Wolf-Rayet
Article détaillé : Bulle de Wolf-Rayet.

D'un aspect voisin de celui des vestiges de supernova, ces bulles de gaz résultent de l'expulsion progressive des couches externes d'une étoile extrêmement chaude et massive. Elles comptent parmi les étoiles les plus massives connues. Les deux bulles de Wolf-Rayet les plus célèbres sont certainement la nébuleuse du Croissant (NGC 6888) et celle du Casque de Thor (NGC 2359).
Régions HII
La nébuleuse d'Orion.
Article détaillé : Région HII.

Ces nébuleuses en émission sont caractérisées par l'excitation d'un nuage d'hydrogène et sont souvent associées à un amas ouvert d'étoiles jeunes ou en formation.
Nébuleuses par réflexion
Article détaillé : Nébuleuse par réflexion.

Identiques en nature aux nébuleuses obscures, elles reflètent partiellement la lumière d'une étoile située à proximité.
Nébuleuses obscures
La nébuleuse de la Tête de Cheval, une nébuleuse obscure.
Article détaillé : Nébuleuse obscure.

Constituées de poussières et de gaz inerte, elles absorbent en partie la lumière qui les traverse et voilent donc ce qui se trouve derrière elles. Dans le domaine du visible, on ne peut les détecter que par contraste sur un champ d'étoiles ou une nébuleuse.
Nébuleuses particulières
Article détaillé : Listes de nébuleuses.

Nébuleuse de la Tête de cheval : Cette nébuleuse sombre se retrouve contre une nébuleuse brillante. La tête de cheval se trouve dans la constellation d'Orion. Elle est visible avec un télescope puissant[réf. nécessaire].
Nébuleuse Trifide : L'hydrogène paraît rose, tandis que l'oxygène donne une lueur bleu-vert. Elle est visible avec un bon télescope.
NGC 3132 : Nébuleuse planétaire qui se trouve dans la constellation des Voiles, facilement observable avec un petit télescope.

Notes et références
Voir aussi

Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

Nébuleuse, sur Wikimedia Commons nébuleuse, sur le Wiktionnaire

Articles connexes

Nébuleuse diffuse
Nébuleuse obscure

Liens externes

(en) Site regroupant les photographies prises par le satellite Hubble [archive]
(en) [vidéo] Nebulas [archive] sur Vimeo
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Nombre de messages : 4956
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr
Date d'inscription : 12/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: L'Agriculture Mondiale, Rogue One, Le Survivant et Y'becca    Sam 17 Déc à 3:49

En astronomie, les nébuleuses diffuses sont, comme les autres nébuleuses, des nuages de matières interstellaires dispersées, constitués de gaz et de poussières mais les nébuleuses diffuses se distinguent par leurs émissions lumineuses, a contrario des nébuleuses obscures. Parmi les nébuleuses diffuses, sont distinguées :

Les nébuleuses en émission. La lumière est émise par du gaz ionisé. Parmi elles, les régions HII qui sont d'importants centres de création d'étoile.
Les nébuleuses par réflexion. La lumière émise par les étoiles proches est réfléchie.

En astronomie, les nébuleuses en émission sont des nuages de gaz ionisé dans le milieu interstellaire qui absorbent la lumière d'une étoile chaude proche et la réémettent sous forme de couleurs variées à des énergies plus basses1.

Sommaire

1 Physico-chimie
2 Classification des nébuleuses en émission
2.1 Les régions HII
2.2 Les nébuleuses planétaires
2.3 Les rémanents de supernova
2.4 Les bulles de Wolf-Rayet
3 Notes et références
4 Voir aussi
4.1 Articles connexes

Physico-chimie

L'ionisation est en général produite par les photons à grande énergie émis par une étoile jeune et chaude se trouvant à proximité ; par exemple le rayonnement UV d'une étoile de type OB. Habituellement, une jeune étoile ionisera une partie du nuage qui l'a engendrée, mais seules les étoiles massives et chaudes peuvent fournir la quantité d'énergie exigée pour ioniser une partie significative d'un nuage interstellaire. Souvent, un amas entier de jeunes étoiles effectue le travail. Cette ionisation échauffe le milieu interstellaire environnant ; la température typique est aux alentours de 10 000 K mais dépend de la composition et de la densité du milieu.

La couleur des nébuleuses dépend de leur composition chimique et de l'intensité de leur ionisation. Beaucoup de nébuleuses en émission sont à dominante rouge, la couleur de la raie de l'hydrogène alpha à 656,3 nanomètres de longueur d'onde, en raison de la forte présence d'hydrogène dans les gaz interstellaires et de son potentiel d'ionisation relativement bas. Si l'ionisation est plus intense, d'autres éléments peuvent être ionisés et les nébuleuses peuvent émettre non seulement dans d'autres nuances de rouge (soufre II à 671,9 et 673,0 nm), mais aussi dans le vert (oxygène III à 495,9 et 500,7 nm) et dans le bleu (hydrogène bêta à 486,1 nm). Ainsi, en examinant le spectre des nébuleuses, les astronomes peuvent déduire leur composition chimique. La plupart des nébuleuses en émission sont formées d'environ 90 % d'hydrogène, le reste étant de l'hélium, de l'oxygène, de l'azote et d'autres éléments.
Classification des nébuleuses en émission

On peut classer les nébuleuses en émission en quatre catégories.
Les régions HII
Article détaillé : Région HII.

Régions d'activité intense où se forment les étoiles, la nébuleuse d'Orion (M42), la nébuleuse de la Carène (NGC 3372) et la nébuleuse de la Tarentule (NGC 2070, dans le Grand Nuage de Magellan) figurent parmi les spécimens les plus remarquables pour un observateur terrestre.
Les nébuleuses planétaires
Article détaillé : Nébuleuse planétaire.

Parmi les plus célèbres, citons la nébuleuse de l'Haltère (M27), l'Anneau de la Lyre (M57) ou encore l'Œil de Chat (NGC 6543).
Les rémanents de supernova
Article détaillé : Rémanent de supernova.

Citons les Dentelles du Cygne et la nébuleuse du Crabe (M1).
Les bulles de Wolf-Rayet
Article détaillé : Bulle de Wolf-Rayet.

Peu fréquentes, certaines d'entre elles demeurent relativement accessibles, comme NGC 2359 et NGC 6888.
Notes et références

↑ Koupelis, Th. 2011. 'In Quest of 'The Universe. Chapitre 13,1. Jones and Bartlett Publishers

Voir aussi
Articles connexes

Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

les nébuleuses à émission, sur Wikimedia Commons

Nébuleuse
Région HII
Nébuleuse planétaire
Rémanent de supernova
Nébuleuse obscure
Bulle de Wolf-Rayet

Nébuleuse par réflexion
Nébuleuse par réflexion dans les Pléiades (M45)

En astronomie, les nébuleuses par réflexion sont des nuages de poussières qui réfléchissent la lumière d'une ou plusieurs étoiles voisines. Ces étoiles ne sont pas assez chaudes pour causer l'ionisation des gaz, comme dans le cas des nébuleuses en émission, mais sont assez lumineuses pour permettre une dispersion suffisante pour rendre la poussière visible. La distinction entre ces deux types de nébuleuses a été faite par Edwin Hubble en 1922.

Les nébuleuses par réflexion sont habituellement bleues parce que la dispersion est plus efficace pour la lumière bleue que la rouge (c'est le même procédé de dispersion qui nous donne les cieux bleus et des couchers de soleil rouges).

Les nébuleuses par réflexion et les nébuleuses en émission sont souvent vues ensemble, comme la nébuleuse d'Orion et sont parfois rassemblées en un seul type : les nébuleuses diffuses.

Environ 500 nébuleuses par réflexion sont connues. Parmi les plus belles on trouve l'entourage des étoiles des Pléiades. Une nébuleuse par réflexion bleue peut également être vue dans le même secteur du ciel que la nébuleuse Trifide. L'étoile géante Antarès, qui est très rouge (classe spectrale M1), est entourée par une grande nébuleuse de réflexion rouge. On peut également citer la nébuleuse de la tête Sorcière, située près de l'étoile Rigel.

Les nébuleuses par réflexion sont souvent des emplacements de formation d'étoiles.

En 1922, Edwin Hubble a publié le résultat de ses investigations sur les nébuleuses lumineuses. Une partie de ce travail est la loi de luminosité de Hubble pour les nébuleuses de réflexion qui établit une relation entre la taille angulaire (r) de la nébuleuse et la magnitude apparente (m) de l'étoile associée :

5 log(r) = - m + k

où k est une constante qui dépend de la sensibilité des instruments de mesure.
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Nombre de messages : 4956
Localisation : http://yanis.tignard.free.fr
Date d'inscription : 12/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: L'Agriculture Mondiale, Rogue One, Le Survivant et Y'becca    Sam 17 Déc à 3:52

En astronomie, les nébuleuses sombres, nébuleuses obscures ou encore nébuleuses d'absorption sont des régions où les poussières du milieu interstellaire semblent se concentrer en grands nuages qui apparaissent en régions pauvres en étoiles.

Les nébuleuses sombres peuvent être vues si elles obscurcissent une partie d'une nébuleuse en émission ou de réflexion, comme la nébuleuse de la Tête de Cheval ou la nébuleuse du Cône dans la constellation de Orion et de la licorne, ou si elles bloquent la lumière des étoiles en arrière-plan, comme le sac de charbon dans la constellation de la Croix du Sud.

La forme de tels nuages est très irrégulière : ils n'ont aucune frontière externe clairement définie et prennent parfois des formes contorsionnées. Les plus grandes nébuleuses sombres sont visibles à l'œil nu, apparaissant comme des zones sombres sur le fond plus lumineux de la Voie lactée.

L'hydrogène de ces nuages sombres et opaques existe sous forme moléculaire (H2). Les plus grandes nébuleuses de ce type, les nuages moléculaires géants, sont plusieurs millions de fois plus massifs que le soleil. Ils contiennent une grande partie de la masse du milieu interstellaire, ont une taille d'environ 150 années-lumière, une densité de matière moyenne de 100 à 300 molécules par centimètre cube et une température interne de seulement de 7 à 15 K. Les nuages moléculaires sont constitués principalement de gaz et de poussières mais peuvent aussi contenir beaucoup d'étoiles. Leurs cœurs sont complètement cachés à la vue et seraient indétectables si leurs molécules constitutives n'émettaient pas dans le domaine des micro-ondes. Ce rayonnement n'est pas absorbé par la poussière et peut donc traverser aisément ces nuages. La matière dans ces nuages est groupée en masses compactes de toutes tailles; les plus petites ayant à peine la taille typique d'une étoile et d'autres s'étendant sur une année-lumière. Ces nuages possèdent un champ magnétique interne qui les empêche de s'effondrer sous l'effet de leur propre gravitation.

Les nuages moléculaires géants jouent un rôle important dans la dynamique des galaxies : quand une étoile passe près d'un nuage géant, l'attraction gravitationnelle considérable de celui-ci perturbera significativement l'orbite de l'étoile. Après de multiples rencontres similaires, une étoile d'un certain âge aura des composantes de vitesse significatives dans toutes les directions, au contraire de l'orbite presque circulaire que les étoiles jeunes héritent du nuage qui les a engendrées. Ceci donne à l'astronome un autre outil pour estimer l'âge des étoiles et contribue à expliquer l'épaisseur du disque galactique.

Les régions internes des nébuleuses sombres sont le siège d'événements importants: la formation des étoiles.

Le Sac de Charbon1, ou Sac à Charbon2, est la région la plus sombre de la Voie lactée2.

Il s'agit d'une nébuleuse obscure, nuage de gaz et de poussières qui en s'effondrant sur eux-mêmes lorsque leur masse est suffisante, forment des étoiles.

Le Sac à Charbon est situé à environ 600 années-lumière de la Terre, dans la constellation de la Croix du Sud.

Il est situé sur la lisière sud de la Voie lactée.
Observations

La nébuleuse est connue depuis toujours des peuples de l'hémisphère sud1. Le navigateur et explorateur espagnol Vicente Yáñez Pinzón témoigna de son existence dès son retour en Europe en 14991. En raison de son opacité, la nébuleuse fut surnommée le Nuage sombre de Magellan, par opposition aux deux brillants Nuages de Magellan1.
Notes et références

↑ a, b, c et d Thierry Botti et Richard Hook, « Un sac cosmique rempli de charbon noir : zoom sur une portion de la nébuleuse du Sac de Charbon » [archive], communiqué de presse photo no eso1539fr, sur eso.org, Observatoire européen austral,‎ 14 octobre 2015 (consulté le 21 février 2016).
↑ a et b Emmanuel Beaudoin, « Le Sac à Charbon », dans Emmanuel Beaudoin, 101 merveilles du ciel, qu'il faut avoir vues dans sa vie, Paris, Dunod, coll. « hors collection », 2015, 240 p., 19,5 x 22,8 cm (ISBN 2-10073802-X et 978-2-10073802-1, OCLC 930454645, présentation en ligne [archive]), no 73, p. 162 [lire en ligne [archive] (page consultée le 21 février 2016)].

Lien externe

Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

sac de charbon, sur le Wiktionnaire

(en) Sac de charbon [archive] sur la base de données Simbad du Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg.

La Croix du Sud est une petite constellation de l'hémisphère sud, la plus petite de toutes les constellations, dont un amas d'étoiles est appelé « la boîte a bijoux » .

Elle est entourée sur trois côtés par le Centaure et au sud par la Mouche.

La Croix du Sud est utile pour trouver le pôle sud céleste. En l'absence d'une étoile similaire à l'étoile polaire de l'hémisphère nord (α Ursae Minoris) dans l'hémisphère sud (σ Oct est la plus proche du pôle, mais elle est trop peu lumineuse pour être utile), deux des étoiles de la Croix du Sud sont utilisées pour le déterminer : en suivant la ligne formée par Acrux (α) et Gacrux (γ) sur 4,5 fois la distance entre ces deux étoiles, (soit ~25° au Sud de Acrux) on tombe sur un point proche du sud céleste.

D'une autre façon, en traçant la droite entre α du Centaure et α Cir (α du Compas), le point où cette droite (qui se prolonge sur α Apus et δ Octans) rencontre la droite précédente est le sud céleste.

Sommaire

1 Histoire
2 Observation des étoiles
3 Étoiles principales
3.1 Acrux (α Crucis)
3.2 Mimosa (β Crucis)
3.3 Gacrux (γ Crucis)
3.4 Autres étoiles
4 Objets célestes
5 Voir aussi
6 Notes et références

Histoire

À cause de la précession des équinoxes, la Croix du Sud était visible depuis la Méditerranée pendant l'Antiquité. Cependant, les astronomes grecs n'ont jamais considéré ses étoiles autrement qu'une partie du Centaure.

On attribue généralement la paternité de la Croix du Sud comme constellation indépendante à Augustin Royer en 1679. Elle était cependant reconnue sous cette forme bien auparavant.

La Croix du Sud — dont le nom s'oppose à la « Croix du Nord » qu'est la constellation du Cygne — est désormais l'une des constellations les plus connues de l'hémisphère sud et ses cinq étoiles les plus brillantes apparaissent sur les drapeaux de l'Australie, du Brésil, de la Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinée, des îles Cocos, de l'île Christmas et des Samoa. Quant aux drapeaux de la Nouvelle-Zélande et des Tokelau, ils omettent juste l'étoile ε. Enfin, le drapeau de Niue réfère aussi à la croix du Sud, bien que les étoiles ne soient pas disposées de la façon habituelle.
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Nombre de messages : 4956
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Date d'inscription : 12/11/2005

MessageSujet: Re: L'Agriculture Mondiale, Rogue One, Le Survivant et Y'becca    Mer 21 Déc à 3:26

Le solstice est l'un des moments où la déclinaison du Soleil sur la sphère céleste semble constante : à ces instants, sa trajectoire apparente atteint son point le plus haut ou le plus bas par rapport aux étoiles. Cependant, en raison de la nature elliptique de l'orbite de la Terre, qui engendre notamment une variation de vitesse de révolution de cette dernière, le jour du solstice ne correspond pas au jour où le Soleil se lève et se couche le plus tard ou le plus tôt. Autrement dit, le créneau de la journée pendant lequel le soleil est visible se décale légèrement, entre mi décembre et début janvier ; si bien que pendant cette période, le raccourcissement puis le rallongement de la durée de visibilité du soleil ne se fait pas par des variations symétriques des heures de lever et de coucher de l'astre solaire14.

L'axe de rotation de la Terre est incliné par rapport à la verticale du plan de son orbite d'environ 23°26'14" et son orientation reste constante au cours d'une révolution autour du Soleil. En conséquence, pendant une moitié de l'année, l'hémisphère nord est plus incliné vers le Soleil que l'hémisphère sud, avec un maximum vers le 21 juin. Pendant l'autre moitié l'hémisphère sud est plus incliné que l'hémisphère nord, avec un maximum vers le 22 décembre. Les moments où ces inclinaisons sont maximales sont les solstices.

Au solstice de juin, la déclinaison du Soleil atteint +23°26'14" ; au solstice de décembre, -23°26'14". Le reste de l'année, elle évolue entre ces deux extrêmes.

Les solstices ne sont pas liés à la distance entre la Terre et le Soleil, variable du fait de son excentricité orbitale : la Terre atteint son aphélie au début juillet et son périhélie au début janvier. Cependant, par suite des cycles de Milanković, l'inclinaison de l'axe terrestre et son excentricité orbitale évoluent au fil du temps : dans 10 000 ans, le passage au périhélie se produira au même moment que le solstice de juin, et le passage à l'aphélie lors du solstice de décembre.

Lors du solstice de juin, le point subsolaire atteint la latitude 23°26'14" nord, c'est-à-dire celle du tropique du Cancer15 : l'un des points situés sur ce parallèle perçoit le centre du Soleil exactement au zénith. On reconnait le solstice d'été en raison de la durée minimale de la nuit et la durée maximale du jour. C'est également le jour où le Soleil se lève le plus au nord-est, passe au méridien avec une hauteur maximale et se couche le plus au nord-ouest. Lors du solstice de décembre, le point subsolaire atteint la latitude 23°26'14" sud, c'est-à-dire celle du tropique du Capricorne.

Les points de la surface terrestre situés à la latitude 66°33'46" nord (c'est-à-dire sur le cercle Arctique) perçoivent le centre du Soleil juste sur l'horizon à minuit lors du solstice de juin. La même chose se produit lors du solstice de décembre pour les points du cercle Antarctique, par 66°33'46" sud.



0° (équateur) : le Soleil atteint sa culmination minimale, n'atteignant que 66,563° au nord ou au sud. Aux équinoxes, le soleil culminera à 90°. Il n'y a pas de saison et le jour dure toujours douze heures.

20° : le Soleil culmine à 46,563° en hiver et 86,563° à l'opposé (le jour du solstice de juin), mais il y a deux jours par an où le Soleil culmine perpendiculairement à 90°. Les jours d'été sont de deux à trois heures plus longs que les jours d'hiver. Le crépuscule dure environ une heure toute l'année.

50° : le Soleil culmine à 16,563° en hiver et à 63,437° en été. Le jour dure moins de 8 heures en hiver et plus de 16 heures en été. Les directions et angles des levers et couchers de Soleil lors des deux solstices sont très différents. En été, le Soleil ne disparaît pas suffisamment sous l'horizon pour que prenne fin le crépuscule astronomique. Au-dessus de 60° de latitude, le crépuscule civil dure toute la nuit. Au-dessus de 66,563°, le Soleil ne se couche pas en été.

70° : en hiver, le Soleil culmine sous l'horizon à −3,437° : il ne se lève pas et la zone est plongée dans la nuit polaire (avec un crépuscule prononcé cependant). En été, il culmine à 43,437° et ne se couche pas.

90° (pôles) : aux solstices d'hiver et d'été, le Soleil est respectivement à 23,437° en dessous et au-dessus de l'horizon, quelle que soit l'heure. Le solstice d'été marque la culmination maximale du Soleil au pôle : après cette date, il descend progressivement sur la sphère céleste et atteint l'horizon lors de l'équinoxe d'automne.

Le solstice est un événement astronomique qui se produit lorsque la position apparente du Soleil vu de la Terre atteint son extrême méridional ou septentrional en fonction du plan de l'équateur céleste ou terrestre. Il s'oppose ainsi à l'équinoxe, qui se produit lorsque la position apparente du Soleil est située sur l'équateur céleste. Tandis que les équinoxes se caractérisent par une durée égale entre le jour et la nuit1, les solstices correspondent à une durée de jour minimale ou maximale.

Par extension, les solstices désignent les jours de l'année pendant lesquels ces événements astronomiques se produisent. Les jours avoisinant le solstice d'été sont les plus longs de l'année, tandis que ceux proches du solstice d'hiver sont les plus courts de l'année2. La date des solstices correspond au début de l'été ou de l'hiver astronomique. Dans les régions tempérées, les solstices — comme les équinoxes — sont souvent utilisés pour définir les saisons du calendrier : ils peuvent servir à délimiter le début de l'été et de l'hiver, ou bien à marquer le milieu de ces deux saisons. Tout comme les saisons, les dates des solstices d'hiver et d'été sont inversées pour les hémisphères nord et sud.

Une année connaît deux solstices : dans le calendrier grégorien, le premier est proche du 21 juin, le second est proche du 21 décembre3. Ces dates changent légèrement au cours des années ; elles évoluent aussi sur les grandes périodes de temps en fonction des légers mouvements de l'axe de rotation terrestre.

Étymologie

Le terme solstice vient du latin solstitium4 (de sol, « soleil », et sistere, « s'arrêter, retenir »), faisant référence à l’azimut du Soleil à son lever et à son coucher semble rester stationnaire pendant quelques jours à ces périodes de l'année, avant de se rapprocher à nouveau de l'Est au lever et de l’Ouest au coucher.

Le terme latin solstitium est employé à la fin de la République romaine au Ier siècle av. J.-C.. Pline l'Ancien l'emploie plusieurs fois dans son Histoire naturelle dans le même sens qu'actuellement. De même, d'un point de vue astronomique moderne, c'est la période où la déclinaison du Soleil semble constante et son mouvement apparent vers le nord ou le sud sur la sphère céleste semble s'arrêter avant de changer de direction.
Histoire
Lever de soleil le jour du solstice d'été à Stonehenge.
Sur un fond nuageux un rayon de Soleil perce au-dessus d'une montagne.
Lever de soleil le jour du solstice d'hiver entre Crib Goch et Carnedd à Llanrug au Royaume-Uni.

Les solstices d'hiver et d'été sont la source de nombreuses célébrations, fêtes païennes ou fêtes religieuses dans différentes cultures au cours de l'histoire.

Dans l'Égypte antique, le solstice d'été correspond à peu près au gonflement des eaux du Nil et marque le début de la nouvelle année5,6.

Plusieurs tribus amérindiennes célèbrent le solstice d'été par la danse du soleil7.

Le christianisme célèbre différentes fêtes liées aux solstices, apparentées à la fête de la Saint-Jean, le 24 juin, à Noël, le 25 décembre ainsi que l'Annonciation le 25 mars.

À Stonehenge, des milliers de personnes se réunissent pour célébrer le passage à l'été.

Dans le calendrier hindou, les deux solstices sidéraux sont nommés Uttarayana et Dakshinayana. Le premier se produit vers le 14 janvier, le deuxième vers le 14 juin. Ils marquent le mouvement du soleil le long d'un zodiaque fixe par rapport aux étoiles (c'est-à-dire que les phénomènes de précession sont ignorés) et son entrée dans Mesha (un signe zodiacal qui correspondait au Bélier vers 285) et dans Tula (qui correspondait à la Balance à la même époque). Les solstices indiens sont traditionnellement calculés en se basant sur le tropique du Capricorne, d'où la différence significative entre les dates indiennes et réelles.

En Inde et en Asie du Sud-Est, le solstice d'hiver est à l'origine de nombreuses festivités locales tel que Makar Sankranti (Plus connue sous les variantes régionales d'Uttarayan au Gujarat, Pongal au Tamil Nadu, Maghi en Haryana, Magha Saaji en Himachal Pradesh, Lohri au Penjab, Makara Sankramana au Karnataka, Bhogali Bihu en Assam, Ghughuti en Uttarakhand, Makara Chaula en Orissa, Maghe Sankranti au Népal et Shishur Saenkraat au Cachemire), Songkran (Nouvel an Thaï) et Thingyan (Nouvel an Birman).

Les croyances celtiques appellent aussi le solstice « litha », qui réfère au jour où les mages récoltent des herbes dites magiques, accompagné d'un hommage à la nature8.

Dans le néopaganisme, les célébrations des solstices correspondent à des fêtes religieuses importantes dans les mouvements druidiques, sataniste moderne et wiccans.

Le solstice d'hiver est associé à un jour férié dans plusieurs cultures telles les Saturnales romaines, Kwanzaa pour certains afro-américains, Sol invictus, Inti Raymi dans l'empire Inca, We Tripantü (renaissance du soleil) chez les mapuches, etc.

Depuis 1982, la Fête de la musique correspond à des festivités organisées généralement le jour du solstice d'été.
Dates
Date et heure (UTC) des solstices et des équinoxes
au début du XXIe siècle
Année Équinoxe
de mars Solstice
de juin Équinoxe
de sept. Solstice
de déc.
jour heure jour heure jour heure jour heure
2001 20 13:30:44 21 07:37:45 22 23:04:30 21 19:21:31
2002 20 19:16:10 21 13:24:26 23 04:55:25 22 01:14:23
2003 21 00:59:47 21 19:10:29 23 10:46:50 22 07:03:50
2004 20 06:48:39 21 00:56:54 22 16:29:51 21 12:41:38
2005 20 12:33:26 21 06:46:09 22 22:23:11 21 18:34:58
2006 20 18:25:35 21 12:25:52 23 04:03:23 22 00:22:07
2007 21 00:07:26 21 18:06:27 23 09:51:15 22 06:07:50
2008 20 05:48:19 20 23:59:23 22 15:44:30 21 12:03:47
2009 20 11:43:39 21 05:45:32 22 21:18:36 21 17:46:48
2010 20 17:32:13 21 11:28:25 23 03:09:02 21 23:38:28
2011 20 23:20:44 21 17:16:30 23 09:04:38 22 05:30:03
2012 20 05:14:25 20 23:08:49 22 14:48:59 21 11:11:37
2013 20 11:01:55 21 05:03:57 22 20:44:08 21 17:11:00
2014 20 16:57:05 21 10:51:14 23 02:29:05 21 23:03:01
2015 20 22:45:09 21 16:37:55 23 08:20:33 22 04:47:57
2016 20 04:30:11 20 22:34:11 22 14:21:07 21 10:44:10
2017 20 10:28:38 21 04:24:09 22 20:01:48 21 16:27:57
2018 20 16:15:27 21 10:07:18 23 01:54:05 21 22:22:44
2019 20 21:58:25 21 15:54:14 23 07:50:10 22 04:19:25
2020 20 03:49:36 20 21:43:40 22 13:30:38 21 10:02:19
2021 20 09:37:27 21 03:32:08 22 19:21:03 21 15:59:16
2022 20 15:33:23 21 09:13:49 23 01:03:40 21 21:48:10
2023 20 21:24:24 21 14:57:47 23 06:49:56 22 03:27:19
2024 20 03:06:21 20 20:50:56 22 12:43:36 21 09:20:30
2025 20 09:01:25 21 02:42:11 22 18:19:16 21 15:03:01
Références :
mars [archive] • juin [archive] • sept. [archive] • déc. [archive]
Institut de mécanique céleste et de calcul des éphémérides

À la différence des équinoxes, l'heure exacte des solstices est plus difficile à déterminer. Les variations de la déclinaison solaire deviennent plus petites à mesure que celui-ci s'approche du minimum ou du maximum. Les jours précédant et suivant les solstices, la vitesse de déclinaison est inférieure à 30 secondes d'arc par jour, moins d'un soixantième du diamètre angulaire du Soleil. Les différences de déclinaison sont presque imperceptibles à l'aide d'un sextant équipé d'un vernier ou à l'aide d'outils plus traditionnels comme un gnomon ou un astrolabe. Les variations dans l'azimut du lever et du coucher du Soleil sont également difficiles à mesurer à cause des changements dans la réfraction atmosphérique. Sans l'aide d'outils plus complexes, la précision sur le solstice ne peut être plus petite que 3 à 5 jours.

Ptolémée utilisait une méthode basée sur l'interpolation. Elle consistait à mesurer la déclinaison du Soleil à midi sur plusieurs jours avant et après le solstice afin de trouver deux jours non consécutifs possédant la même déclinaison. Le solstice est alors estimé à mi-chemin de ces deux dates. Il a été postulé qu'un intervalle de mesure de 45 jours permet d'atteindre une précision de six heures9.

Le solstice peut être déterminé précisément avec un astrolabe, à condition de disposer d'un point intermédiaire - la Lune - visible de nuit (pour pouvoir être positionné de nuit sur la sphère céleste) et suffisamment brillant pour être visible de jour (afin de pouvoir recaler la position horaire de la sphère céleste, et positionner le Soleil sur celle-ci). Avec cette double visée, qui revient à déterminer le temps sidéral, il est possible de déterminer le moment où le Soleil passe à 90° du point vernal (intersection de l'écliptique et de l'équateur), avec la précision de la mesure (sensiblement, un jour par degré).
Calendrier grégorien

Dans le calendrier grégorien, les dates de solstices varient suivant les années (le tableau à droite les résume pour les années proches). Les faits suivants sont à prendre en compte :

L’orbite terrestre n’est pas tout à fait circulaire et sa vitesse dépend donc de sa position (deuxième loi de Kepler). En conséquence, les saisons ont une durée inégale :
printemps boréal (automne austral), de l’équinoxe de mars au solstice de juin : 92,7 jours ;
été boréal (hiver austral), du solstice de juin à l’équinoxe de septembre : 93,7 jours ;
automne boréal (printemps austral), de l’équinoxe de septembre au solstice de décembre : 89,9 jours ;
hiver boréal (été austral), du solstice de décembre à l’équinoxe de mars : 89,0 jours.
L'année civile standard n'est que de 365 jours ; l'année tropique est d'environ 365,2422 jours. Les solstices se produisent donc quasiment six heures plus tard d'une année sur l'autre10. Les années bissextiles permettent de recaler les dates de solstices d'une journée tous les quatre ans.
Ce décalage bissextile compense légèrement trop la différence entre l'année civile et l'année tropique. Au bout de 70 ans, il conduit les solstices à se produire une journée plus tôt (ce qui est le problème du calendrier julien). Ce point est partiellement compensé par l'absence d'année bissextile pour les années divisibles par 100 (mais pas par 400).

Le solstice de juin se produit en général le 21 juin. Il est survenu le 20 juin en 2008 ainsi qu'en 2012 et 2016, ce qui n'était pas arrivé depuis 1896 ; cela se reproduira en 2020, 2024, ... Il s'est produit le 22 juin en 1975 et tombera à nouveau à cette date au début du XXIIIe siècle en 2203, 2207, 2211 et 2215, puis en 2302. Le solstice de juin tombera exceptionnellement un 19 juin en 2488 et ce sera la première fois depuis la création du calendrier grégorien11.

Le solstice de décembre a généralement lieu le 21 ou le 22 décembre. Il est tombé un 23 décembre en 1903 et il faudra attendre le début du XXIVe siècle pour le voir se produire de nouveau à cette date. Il est tombé un 20 décembre 10 fois à la fin du XVIIe siècle et tombera de nouveau à cette date à la fin du XXIe siècle et à la fin du XXVe siècle.
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MessageSujet: Re: L'Agriculture Mondiale, Rogue One, Le Survivant et Y'becca    Mer 28 Déc à 2:45

Le Voyage
Charles Baudelaire

À Maxime Du Camp

I

Pour l’enfant, amoureux de cartes et d’estampes,
L’univers est égal à son vaste appétit.
Ah ! que le monde est grand à la clarté des lampes !
Aux yeux du souvenir que le monde est petit !

Un matin nous partons, le cerveau plein de flamme,
Le cœur gros de rancune et de désirs amers,
Et nous allons, suivant le rythme de la lame,
Berçant notre infini sur le fini des mers :

Les uns, joyeux de fuir une patrie infâme ;
D’autres, l’horreur de leurs berceaux, et quelques-uns,
Astrologues noyés dans les yeux d’une femme,
La Circé tyrannique aux dangereux parfums.

Pour n’être pas changés en bêtes, ils s’enivrent
D’espace et de lumière et de cieux embrasés ;
La glace qui les mord, les soleils qui les cuivrent,
Effacent lentement la marque des baisers.

Mais les vrais voyageurs sont ceux-là seuls qui partent
Pour partir ; cœurs légers, semblables aux ballons,
De leur fatalité jamais ils ne s’écartent,
Et sans savoir pourquoi, disent toujours : Allons !

Ceux-là, dont les désirs ont la forme des nues,
Et qui rêvent, ainsi qu’un conscrit le canon,
De vastes voluptés, changeantes, inconnues,
Et dont l’esprit humain n’a jamais su le nom !

II

Nous imitons, horreur ! la toupie et la boule
Dans leur valse et leurs bonds ; même dans nos sommeils
La Curiosité nous tourmente et nous roule,
Comme un Ange cruel qui fouette des soleils.

Singulière fortune où le but se déplace,
Et, n’étant nulle part, peut être n’importe où !
Où l’Homme, dont jamais l’espérance n’est lasse,
Pour trouver le repos court toujours comme un fou !

Notre âme est un trois-mâts cherchant son Icarie ;
Une voix retentit sur le pont : « Ouvre l’œil ! »
Une voix de la hune, ardente et folle, crie :
« Amour… gloire… bonheur ! » Enfer ! c’est un écueil !

Chaque îlot signalé par l’homme de vigie
Est un Eldorado promis par le Destin ;
L’Imagination qui dresse son orgie
Ne trouve qu’un récif aux clartés du matin.

Ô le pauvre amoureux des pays chimériques !
Faut-il le mettre aux fers, le jeter à la mer,
Ce matelot ivrogne, inventeur d’Amériques
Dont le mirage rend le gouffre plus amer ?

Tel le vieux vagabond, piétinant dans la boue,
Rêve, le nez en l’air, de brillants paradis ;
Son œil ensorcelé découvre une Capoue
Partout où la chandelle illumine un taudis.

III

Étonnants voyageurs ! quelles nobles histoires
Nous lisons dans vos yeux profonds comme les mers !
Montrez-nous les écrins de vos riches mémoires,
Ces bijoux merveilleux, faits d’astres et d’éthers.

Nous voulons voyager sans vapeur et sans voile !
Faites, pour égayer l’ennui de nos prisons,
Passer sur nos esprits, tendus comme une toile,
Vos souvenirs avec leurs cadres d’horizons.

Dites, qu’avez-vous vu ?

IV

« Nous avons vu des astres
Et des flots ; nous avons vu des sables aussi ;
Et, malgré bien des chocs et d’imprévus désastres,
Nous nous sommes souvent ennuyés, comme ici.

La gloire du soleil sur la mer violette,
La gloire des cités dans le soleil couchant,
Allumaient dans nos coeurs une ardeur inquiète
De plonger dans un ciel au reflet alléchant.

Les plus riches cités, les plus beaux paysages,
Jamais ne contenaient l’attrait mystérieux
De ceux que le hasard fait avec les nuages.
Et toujours le désir nous rendait soucieux !

– La jouissance ajoute au désir de la force.
Désir, vieil arbre à qui le plaisir sert d’engrais,
Cependant que grossit et durcit ton écorce,
Tes branches veulent voir le soleil de plus près !

Grandiras-tu toujours, grand arbre plus vivace
Que le cyprès ? – Pourtant nous avons, avec soin,
Cueilli quelques croquis pour votre album vorace,
Frères qui trouvez beau tout ce qui vient de loin !

Nous avons salué des idoles à trompe ;
Des trônes constellés de joyaux lumineux ;
Des palais ouvragés dont la féerique pompe
Serait pour vos banquiers un rêve ruineux ;

Des costumes qui sont pour les yeux une ivresse ;
Des femmes dont les dents et les ongles sont teints,
Et des jongleurs savants que le serpent caresse. »

V

Et puis, et puis encore ?

VI

« Ô cerveaux enfantins !

Pour ne pas oublier la chose capitale,
Nous avons vu partout, et sans l’avoir cherché,
Du haut jusques en bas de l’échelle fatale,
Le spectacle ennuyeux de l’immortel péché :

La femme, esclave vile, orgueilleuse et stupide,
Sans rire s’adorant et s’aimant sans dégoût ;
L’homme, tyran goulu, paillard, dur et cupide,
Esclave de l’esclave et ruisseau dans l’égout ;

Le bourreau qui jouit, le martyr qui sanglote ;
La fête qu’assaisonne et parfume le sang ;
Le poison du pouvoir énervant le despote,
Et le peuple amoureux du fouet abrutissant ;

Plusieurs religions semblables à la nôtre,
Toutes escaladant le ciel ; la Sainteté,
Comme en un lit de plume un délicat se vautre,
Dans les clous et le crin cherchant la volupté ;

L’Humanité bavarde, ivre de son génie,
Et, folle maintenant comme elle était jadis,
Criant à Dieu, dans sa furibonde agonie :
« Ô mon semblable, ô mon maître, je te maudis ! »

Et les moins sots, hardis amants de la Démence,
Fuyant le grand troupeau parqué par le Destin,
Et se réfugiant dans l’opium immense !
– Tel est du globe entier l’éternel bulletin. »

VII

Amer savoir, celui qu’on tire du voyage !
Le monde, monotone et petit, aujourd’hui,
Hier, demain, toujours, nous fait voir notre image :
Une oasis d’horreur dans un désert d’ennui !

Faut-il partir ? rester ? Si tu peux rester, reste ;
Pars, s’il le faut. L’un court, et l’autre se tapit
Pour tromper l’ennemi vigilant et funeste,
Le Temps ! Il est, hélas ! des coureurs sans répit,

Comme le Juif errant et comme les apôtres,
À qui rien ne suffit, ni wagon ni vaisseau,
Pour fuir ce rétiaire infâme : il en est d’autres
Qui savent le tuer sans quitter leur berceau.

Lorsque enfin il mettra le pied sur notre échine,
Nous pourrons espérer et crier : En avant !
De même qu’autrefois nous partions pour la Chine,
Les yeux fixés au large et les cheveux au vent,

Nous nous embarquerons sur la mer des Ténèbres
Avec le cœur joyeux d’un jeune passager.
Entendez-vous ces voix, charmantes et funèbres,
Qui chantent : « Par ici ! vous qui voulez manger

Le Lotus parfumé ! c’est ici qu’on vendange
Les fruits miraculeux dont votre cœur a faim ;
Venez vous enivrer de la douceur étrange
De cette après-midi qui n’a jamais de fin ! »

À l’accent familier nous devinons le spectre ;
Nos Pylades là-bas tendent leurs bras vers nous.
« Pour rafraîchir ton cœur nage vers ton Électre ! »
Dit celle dont jadis nous baisions les genoux.

VIII

Ô Mort, vieux capitaine, il est temps ! levons l’ancre !
Ce pays nous ennuie, ô Mort ! Appareillons !
Si le ciel et la mer sont noirs comme de l’encre,
Nos cœurs que tu connais sont remplis de rayons !

Verse-nous ton poison pour qu’il nous réconforte !
Nous voulons, tant ce feu nous brûle le cerveau,
Plonger au fond du gouffre, Enfer ou Ciel, qu’importe ?
Au fond de l’Inconnu pour trouver du nouveau !

Charles Baudelaire
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MessageSujet: Re: L'Agriculture Mondiale, Rogue One, Le Survivant et Y'becca    Jeu 29 Déc à 4:03

Crise Financiére, Wall Street, Solution par TAY et Y'becca
http://leclandesmouettes.bbflash.net/t205p25-crise-financiere-wall-street-solution-par-tay-et-y-becca#4307

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