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 Seleucid Empire, Y'becca et les Origines de la Femme.

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yanis la chouette

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Date d'inscription : 12/11/2005

MessageSujet: Seleucid Empire, Y'becca et les Origines de la Femme.   Mar 13 Sep à 10:03

Seleucid Empire, Y'becca et les Origines de la Femme.

Since approximately 10,000 BC, Syria was one of centers of Neolithic culture (known as Pre-Pottery Neolithic A) where agriculture and cattle breeding appeared for the first time in the world. The following Neolithic period (PPNB) is represented by rectangular houses of Mureybet culture. At the time of the pre-pottery Neolithic, people used vessels made of stone, gyps and burnt lime (Vaisselle blanche). Finds of obsidian tools from Anatolia are evidences of early trade relations. Cities of Hamoukar and Emar played an important role during the late Neolithic and Bronze Age. Archaeologists have demonstrated that civilization in Syria was one of the most ancient on earth, perhaps preceded by only those of Mesopotamia. The earliest recorded indigenous civilisation in the region was the Kingdom of Ebla[25] near present-day Idlib, northern Syria. Ebla appears to have been founded around 3500 BC,[26][27][28][29][30] and gradually built its fortune through trade with the Mesopotamian states of Sumer, Assyria and Akkad, as well as with the Hurrian and Hattian peoples to the northwest, in Asia Minor.[31] Gifts from Pharaohs, found during excavations, confirm Ebla's contact with Egypt.

One of the earliest written texts from Syria is a trading agreement between Vizier Ibrium of Ebla and an ambiguous kingdom called Abarsal c. 2300 BC.[32][33] Scholars believe the language of Ebla to be among the oldest known written Semitic languages after Akkadian, Recent classifications of the Eblaite language have shown that it was an East Semitic language, closely related to the Akkadian language.[34]

The name Syria is derived from the 8th century BC Luwian term "Sura/i", and the derivative ancient Greek name: Σύριοι, Sýrioi, or Σύροι, Sýroi, both of which originally derived from Aššūrāyu (Assyria) in northern Mesopotamia.[16][17] However, from the Seleucid Empire (323–150 BC), this term was also applied to The Levant, and from this point the Greeks applied the term without distinction between the Assyrians of Mesopotamia and Arameans of the Levant.[18][19] Mainstream modern academic opinion strongly favours the argument that the Greek word is related to the cognate Ἀσσυρία, Assyria, ultimately derived from the Akkadian Aššur.[20] In the past, others believed that it was derived from Siryon, the name that the Sidonians gave to Mount Hermon.[21] However, the discovery of the Çineköy inscription in 2000 seems to support the theory that the term Syria derives from Assyria, whose ancient homeland was located in modern northern Iraq.

The area designated by the word has changed over time. Classically, Syria lies at the eastern end of the Mediterranean, between Arabia to the south and Asia Minor to the north, stretching inland to include parts of Iraq, and having an uncertain border to the northeast that Pliny the Elder describes as including, from west to east, Commagene, Sophene, and Adiabene.[22]

By Pliny's time, however, this larger Syria had been divided into a number of provinces under the Roman Empire (but politically independent from each other): Judaea, later renamed Palaestina in AD 135 (the region corresponding to modern-day Israel, the Palestinian Territories, and Jordan) in the extreme southwest; Phoenice (established in 194 AD) corresponding to modern Lebanon, Damascus and Homs regions; Coele-Syria (or "Hollow Syria") south of the Eleutheris river, and Iraq.[23]

Syria (Listeni/ˈsɪ.rɪə/; Arabic: سوريا‎‎ or سورية, Sūriyā or Sūrīyah), officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

A country of fertile plains, high mountains, and deserts, Syria is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups, including Syrian Arabs, Greeks, Armenians, Assyrians, Kurds, Circassians,[7] Mandeans[8] and Turks. Religious groups include Sunnis, Christians, Alawites, Druze, Mandeans, Shiites, Salafis, and Yazidis. Sunni Arabs make up the largest population group in Syria.

In English, the name "Syria" was formerly synonymous with the Levant (known in Arabic as al-Sham), while the modern state encompasses the sites of several ancient kingdoms and empires, including the Eblan civilization of the 3rd millennium BC. Its capital Damascus is among the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.[9] In the Islamic era, Damascus was the seat of the Umayyad Caliphate and a provincial capital of the Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt.

The modern Syrian state was established after the end of centuries of Ottoman control in World War I as a French mandate, and represented the largest Arab state to emerge from the formerly Ottoman-ruled Arab Levant. It gained independence as a parliamentary republic on 24 October 1945 when Syria became a founding member of the United Nations, an act which legally ended the former French Mandate – although French troops did not leave the country until April 1946. The post-independence period was tumultuous, and a large number of military coups and coup attempts shook the country in the period 1949–71. In 1958, Syria entered a brief union with Egypt called the United Arab Republic, which was terminated by the 1961 Syrian coup d'état. The Arab Republic of Syria came into being in late 1961 after December 1 constitutional referendum, and was increasingly unstable until the Ba'athist coup d'état, since which the Ba'ath Party has maintained its power. Syria was under Emergency Law from 1963 to 2011, effectively suspending most constitutional protections for citizens, and its system of government is considered to be non-democratic by the North American NGO Freedom House.[10] Bashar al-Assad has been president since 2000 and was preceded by his father Hafez al-Assad, who was in office from 1970 to 2000.[11]

Syria is a member of one international organization other than the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement; it has become suspended from the Arab League on November 2011[12] and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation,[13] and self-suspended from the Union for the Mediterranean.[14] Since March 2011, Syria has been embroiled in an uprising against Assad and the Ba'athist government as part of the Arab Spring, a crackdown that contributed to the Syrian Civil War and to Syria's becoming one of the most violent countries in the world.[15] A number of pseudo-state entities have since emerged on Syrian territories, including the Syrian Opposition, the Federation of Northern Syria and Islamic State of Iraq and Syria.

Ebla was weakened by a long war with Mari, and the whole of Syria became part of the Mesopotamian Akkadian Empire after Sargon of Akkad and his grandson Naram-Sin's conquests ended Eblan domination over Syria in the first half of the 23rd century BC.[35][36]

By the 21st century BC, Hurrians settled the northern east parts of Syria while the rest of the region was dominated by the Amorites, Syria was called the Land of the Amurru (Amorites) by their Assyro-Babylonian neighbors. The Northwest Semitic language of the Amorites is the earliest attested of the Canaanite languages. Mari reemerged during this period, and saw renewed prosperity until conquered by Hammurabi of Babylon. Ugarit also arose during this time, circa 1800 BC, close to modern Latakia. Ugaritic was a Semitic language loosely related to the Canaanite languages, and developed the Ugaritic alphabet.[37] the Ugarites kingdom survived until its destruction at the hands of the marauding Indo-European Sea Peoples in the 12th century BC.

Yamhad (modern Aleppo) dominated northern Syria for two centuries,[38] although Eastern Syria was occupied in the 19th and 18th centuries BC by the Old Assyrian Empire ruled by the Amorite Dynasty of Shamshi-Adad I, and by the Babylonian Empire which was founded by Amorites. Yamhad was described in the tablets of Mari as the mightiest state in the near east and as having more vassals than Hammurabi of Babylon.[38] Yamhad imposed its authority over Alalakh,[39] Qatna,[40] the Hurrians states and the Euphrates Valley down to the borders with Babylon.[41] The army of Yamhad campaigned as far away as Dēr on the border of Elam (modern Iran).[42] Yamhad was conquered and destroyed, along with Ebla, by the Indo-European Hittites from Asia Minor circa 1600 BC.[43]

From this time, Syria became a battle ground for various foreign empires, these being the Hittite Empire, Mitanni Empire, Egyptian Empire, Middle Assyrian Empire, and to a lesser degree Babylonia. The Egyptians initially occupied much of the south, while the Hittites, and the Mitanni, much of the north. However, Assyria eventually gained the upper hand, destroying the Mitanni Empire and annexing huge swathes of territory previously held by the Hittites and Babylon.
Arameans and Phoenicians : Around the 14th century BC, various Semitic peoples appeared in the area, such as the semi-nomadic Suteans who came into an unsuccessful conflict with Babylonia to the east, and the West Semitic speaking Arameans who subsumed the earlier Amorites. They too were subjugated by Assyria and the Hittites for centuries. The Egyptians fought the Hittites for control over western Syria; the fighting reached its zenith in 1274 BC with the Battle of Kadesh.[44][45] The west remained part of the Hittite empire until its destruction c. 1200 BC,[46] while eastern Syria largely became part of the Middle Assyrian Empire,[47] who also annexed much of the west during the reign of Tiglath-Pileser I 1114–1076 BC.

With the destruction of the Hittites and the decline of Assyria in the late 11th century BC, the Aramean tribes gained control of much of the interior, founding states such as Bit Bahiani, Aram-Damascus, Hamath, Aram-Rehob, Aram-Naharaim, and Luhuti. From this point, the region became known as Aramea or Aram. There was also a synthesis between the Semitic Arameans and the remnants of the Indo-European Hittites, with the founding of a number of Syro-Hittite states centered in north central Aram (Syria) and south central Asia Minor (modern Turkey), including Palistin, Carchemish and Sam'al.

A Canaanite group known as the Phoenicians came to dominate the coasts of Syria, (and also Lebanon and northern Palestine) from the 13th century BC, founding city states such as Amrit, Simyra, Arwad, Paltos, Ramitha and Shuksi. From these coastal regions they eventually spread their influence throughout the Mediterranean, including building colonies in Malta, Sicily, the Iberian peninsula (modern Spain and Portugal), the coasts of North Africa, and most significantly, founding the major city state of Carthage (in modern Tunisia) in the 9th century BC which was much later to become the center of a major empire, rivaling the Roman Empire.

Syria and the entire Near East and beyond then fell to the vast Neo Assyrian Empire (911 BC – 605 BC). The Assyrians introduced Imperial Aramaic as the lingua franca of their empire. This language was to remain dominant in Syria and the entire Near East until after the Arab Islamic conquest in the 7th and 8th centuries AD, and was to be a vehicle for the spread of Christianity. The Assyrians named their colonies of Syria and Lebanon Eber-Nari. Assyrian domination ended after the Assyrians greatly weakened themselves in a series of brutal internal civil wars, followed by an attacking coalition of their former subject peoples; the Medes, Babylonians, Chaldeans, Persians, Scythians and Cimmerians. During the fall of Assyria, the Scythians ravaged and plundered much of Syria. The last stand of the Assyrian army was at Carchemish in northern Syria in 605 BC.

The Assyrian Empire was followed by the Neo-Babylonian Empire (605 BC – 539 BC). During this period, Syria became a battle ground between Babylonia and another former Assyrian colony, that of Egypt. The Babylonians, like their Assyrian relations, were victorious over Egypt.
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MessageSujet: Re: Seleucid Empire, Y'becca et les Origines de la Femme.   Mar 13 Sep à 10:03

Le 13e jour, un film nouveau sur Fatima

« Mon nom est Lucia dos Santos. Lorsque j’avais 10 ans, un événement extraordinaire a changé ma vie. J’ai été touchée par le surnaturel et on m’a confié un secret. Un secret que j’ai gardé envers et contre tous. Mes supérieures m’ont demandé d’écrire tous les souvenirs enfouis dans mon cœur ». C’est sur ces paroles que commence Le 13e jour, une réalisation qui retrace les cinq mois intenses vécus entre le 13 mai et le 13 octobre 1917 par Lucia, 10 ans, et ses cousins Francisco, 9 ans, et Jacinta, 7 ans.

Un nouveau film sur les évènements de Fatima, Le 13e jour, prend le parti de s’intéresser à la manière dont les trois jeunes voyants ont vécu les apparitions de Fatima. Avec ce film, le spectateur prend conscience des pressions subies par les pastoureaux, du courage et de la confiance absolue qu’ils avaient en la Vierge Marie.

Que ce soit de la part de leurs parents ou des autorités ecclésiales et civiles, les tentatives des adultes ne les détourneront jamais de leur engagement envers la « Dame » de ne rien révéler des secrets confiés…Même quand ils sont amenés de force au siège du gouvernement et menacés d’être plongés dans un chaudron d’huile bouillante, ils ne cèdent pas et prient même le chapelet avec leurs codétenus !

Table of contents (from Raymond N. Mackenzie's 2008 translation)

To Arsène Houssaye
1. The Foreigner
2. The Old Woman's Despair
3. The Artist's Confession
4. A Joker
5. The Double Room
6. To Each His Chimera
7. The Fool and Venus
8. The Dog and the Vial
9. The Bad Glazier
10. At One in the Morning
11. The Wild Woman and the Little Mistress
12. Crowds
13. The Widows
14. The Old Mountebank
15. Cake
16. The Clock
17. A Hemisphere in Her Hair
18. Invitation to the Voyage
19. The Toy of the Poor
20. The Fairies' Gifts
21. The Temptations: Or, Eros, Plutus, and Fame
22. Evening Twilight
23. Solitude
24. Plans
25. Beautiful Dorothy
26. The Eyes of the Poor
27. A Heroic Death
28. Counterfeit Money
29. The Generous Gambler
30. The Rope
31. Vocations
32. The Thyrsus
33. Get Yourself Drunk
34. Already!
35. Windows
36. The Desire to Paint
37. The Favors of the Moon
38. Which is the Real One?
39. A Thoroughbred
40. The Mirror
41. The Port
42. Portraits of Mistresses
43. The Gallant Marksman
44. The Soup and the Clouds
45. The Firing Range and the Graveyard
46. Loss of a Halo
47. Mademoiselle Bistouri
48. Any Where Out of the World
49. Let's Beat Up the Poor!
50. Good Dogs
This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (April 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
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MessageSujet: Re: Seleucid Empire, Y'becca et les Origines de la Femme.   Mar 13 Sep à 10:03

Processus de Paix des secouristes de la république de l'Olivier.

Je crois qu'à l'avenir, plus personne ne pourra recréer des bulles d'exclusions...
Pour cela, je ne peux me permettre de mettre à l'écart tout individu(e) et "État".

Je ne suis qu'une femme ou un homme humble qui en vous adressant ces ces vers,
espère qu'il puisse vous conduire vers l'expérience, le travail et la communauté...
La solitude augmente ou diminue le nervosité... Cela s'appelle le malheur...

Alors par décision, on recherche à se tranquilliser et remettre la balance sur le zéro;
alors par construction, on décèle la notion d'une fragile tolérance:
Celle d'insulter !

Par Yahvé, cela est une horreur et une erreur...

La République de l'Olivier dit :
"Oui à la gréve, Non à l'Esclavage..."
la constitution rajoute :
"Oui à la Bibliothèque et Non à la Faim."
et le peuple doit rajouter :
"Oui à l'écoute et Non aux viols physiques et moraux."

Alors le Novice du Secourisme prends en charge sa nouvelle fonction autre qu'un service
militaire mais basé aussi sur la protection du Bien et du Corps.

"Je suis Y'becca"

Ecrit de
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MessageSujet: Re: Seleucid Empire, Y'becca et les Origines de la Femme.   Mar 13 Sep à 10:04

Lettre d’H.P. Lovecraft à Sonia

Aucun homme, aucune femme pondérés n'espèrent une exaltation physique aussi extraordinaire.

L’amour réciproque d’un homme et d’une femme est une expérience d’imagination qui consiste à attribuer à son objet une certaine relation particulière avec la vie esthético-émotionnelle de celui qui l’éprouve… […] La jeunesse apporte avec elle des stimuli érogènes et imaginaires liés aux phénomènes tactiles de corps minces, aux attitudes virginales et à l’imagerie des contours esthétiques classiques, symbolisant une sorte de fraîcheur et d’immaturité printanières très belles mais qui n’ont rien à voir avec l’amour conjugal.

Aucun homme, aucune femme pondérés n’espèrent une exaltation physique aussi extraordinaire, sauf pour une brève période et durant son extrême jeunesse ; et toute personne de qualité transférera rapidement ses besoins psychiques dans d’autres domaines à l’approche de l’âge mûr ; les autres formes de stimulation signifient bien plus que le sexe pour de telles personnes, ce qui explique pourquoi elles ne lui accordent plus avoir que des pensées passagères.

Howard Phillips Lovecraft ( 20 août 1890 – 15 mars 1937 ) est considéré comme un maître de la littérature fantastique et horrifique du 20ème siècle notamment par le grand auteur de ce genre, Stephen King. Fasciné par Edgar Allan Poe et Charles Baudelaire, Lovecraft va construire un univers effrayant rempli de pessimisme et de cynisme, remettant en question l’héritage des Lumières ou l’humanisme chrétien. Le maître de l’horreur s’exprime dans cette lettre sur les différences entre l’amour de jeunesse et l’amour mûr.

( H.P. Lovecraft : le roman de sa vie ; Durante ) - (Source image : Portrait of horror fiction writer, Howard P. Lovecraft, 1915, © Wikimedia Commons / Sonia Greene, 30 juillet 2011, © Wikimedia Commons)
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MessageSujet: Re: Seleucid Empire, Y'becca et les Origines de la Femme.   Mar 13 Sep à 10:04

Middle Ages
During Muhammad's era
Main article: List of battles of Muhammad

Muhammad's first interaction with the people and tribes of Syria was during the Invasion of Dumatul Jandal in July 626 [52] where he ordered his followers to Invade Duma, because Muhammad received intelligence that some tribes there were involved in highway robbery and preparing to attack Medina itself.[53]

William Montgomery Watt claims that this was the most significant expedition Muhammad ordered at the time, even though it received little notice in the primary sources. Dumat Al-Jandal was 800 kilometres (500 mi) from Medina, and Watt says that there was no immediate threat to Muhammad, other than the possibility that his communications to Syria and supplies to Medina being interrupted. Watt says "It is tempting to suppose that Muhammad was already envisaging something of the expansion which took place after his death", and that the rapid march of his troops must have "impressed all those who heard of it".[54]

William Muir also believes that the expedition was important as Muhammad followed by 1000 men reached the confines of Syria, where distant tribes had now learnt his name, while the political horizon of Muhammad was extended.[52]
Islamic Syria (al-Sham)
Main article: Bilad al-Sham
Fresco from Qasr al-Hayr al-Gharbî, built in the early 7th century

By AD 640, Syria was conquered by the Arab Rashidun army led by Khalid ibn al-Walid. In the mid-7th century, the Umayyad dynasty, then rulers of the empire, placed the capital of the empire in Damascus. The country's power declined during later Umayyad rule; this was mainly due to totalitarianism, corruption and the resulting revolutions. The Umayyad dynasty was then overthrown in 750 by the Abbasid dynasty, which moved the capital of empire to Baghdad.

Arabic – made official under Umayyad rule – became the dominant language, replacing Greek and Aramaic of the Byzantine era. In 887, the Egypt-based Tulunids annexed Syria from the Abbasids, and were later replaced by once the Egypt-based Ikhshidids and still later by the Hamdanids originating in Aleppo founded by Sayf al-Dawla.[55]
Crusaders, Ayubids, Mamluks and Nizaris
The 1299 Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar. The Mongols under Ghazan defeated the Mamluks.

Sections of Syria were held by French, English, Italian and German overlords between 1098 and 1189 AD during the Crusades and were known collectively as the Crusader states among which the primary one in Syria was the Principality of Antioch. The coastal mountainous region was also occupied in part by the Nizari Ismailis, the so-called Assassins, who had intermittent confrontations and truces with the Crusader States. Later in history when "the Nizaris faced renewed Frankish hostilities, they received timely assistance from the Ayyubids."[56]

After a century of Seljuk rule, Syria was largely conquered (1175–1185) by the Kurdish warlord Saladin, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty of Egypt. Aleppo fell to the Mongols of Hulegu in January 1260, and Damascus in March, but then Hulegu was forced to break off his attack to return to China to deal with a succession dispute.

A few months later, the Mamluks arrived with an army from Egypt and defeated the Mongols in the Battle of Ain Jalut in Galilee. The Mamluk leader, Baibars, made Damascus a provincial capital. When he died, power was taken by Qalawun. In the meantime, an emir named Sunqur al-Ashqar had tried to declare himself ruler of Damascus, but he was defeated by Qalawun on 21 June 1280, and fled to northern Syria. Al-Ashqar, who had married a Mongol woman, appealed for help from the Mongols. The Mongols of the Ilkhanate took the city, but Qalawun persuaded Al-Ashqar to join him, and they fought against the Mongols on 29 October 1281, in the Second Battle of Homs, which was won by the Mamluks.[57]

In 1400, the Muslim Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur Lenk (Tamurlane) invaded Syria, sacked Aleppo and captured Damascus after defeating the Mamluk army. The city's inhabitants were massacred, except for the artisans, who were deported to Samarkand. Timur-Lenk also conducted specific massacres of the Aramean and Assyrian Christian populations, greatly reducing their numbers.[58][59] By the end of the 15th century, the discovery of a sea route from Europe to the Far East ended the need for an overland trade route through Syria.
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MessageSujet: Re: Seleucid Empire, Y'becca et les Origines de la Femme.   Mar 13 Sep à 10:04

The Achaemenid Persians took Syria from Babylonia as part of their hegemony of Southwest Asia in 539 BC. The Persians, having spent four centuries under Assyrian rule, retained Imperial Aramaic as diplomatic language in the Achaemenid Empire (539 BC- 330 BC), and also the Assyrian name of the satrapy of Aram/Syria Eber-Nari.

Syria was conquered by the Greek Macedonian Empire, ruled by Alexander the Great circa 330 BC, and consequently became Coele-Syria province of the Greek Seleucid Empire (323 BC – 64 BC).

It was the Greeks who introduced the name "Syria" to the region. Originally an Indo-European corruption of "Assyria" in northern Mesopotamia, the Greeks used this term to describe not only Assyria itself but also the lands to the west which had for centuries been under Assyrian dominion.[48] Thus in the Greco-Roman world both the Arameans of Syria and the Assyrians of Mesopotamia to the east were referred to as "Syrians" or "Syriacs", despite these being distinct peoples in their own right, a confusion which would continue into the modern world. Eventually parts of southern Seleucid Syria were taken by Judean Hasmoneans upon the slow disintegration of the Hellenistic Empire.

Syria briefly came under Armenian control from 83 BC, with the conquests of Tigranes the Great, who was welcomed as a savior from the Seleucids and Romans by its people. The Armenians retained control of Syria for two decades before being driven out by the Romans.
Roman theatre of Bosra in the province of Arabia, present-day Syria

Pompey the Great of the Roman Empire, who captured Antioch in 64 BC, turning Syria into a Roman province.
Map of the Palmyrene empire
The Palmyrene empire in 271 AD

Palmyra, a rich and sometimes powerful native Aramaic-speaking kingdom arose in northern Syria in the 2nd century; the Palmyrene established a trade network that made the city one of the richest in the Roman empire. Eventually, in the late 3rd century AD, the Palmyrene king Odaenathus defeated the Persian emperor Shapur I and controlled the entirety of the Roman East while his successor and widow Zenobia established the Palmyrene Empire, which briefly conquered Egypt, Syria, Palestine, much of Asia Minor, Judah and Lebanon, before being finally brought under Roman control in 273 AD.

The northern Mesopotamian Assyrian kingdom of Adiabene controlled areas of north east Syria between 10 AD and 117 AD, before it was conquered by Rome.[49]

The Aramaic language has been found as far afield as Hadrians Wall in Ancient Britain, with inscriptions written by Assyrian and Aramean soldiers of the Roman Empire.[50]

Control of Syria eventually passed from the Romans to the Byzantines, with the split in the Roman Empire.[31]

The largely Aramaic-speaking population of Syria during the heyday of the Byzantine empire was probably not exceeded again until the 19th century. Prior to the Arab Islamic Conquest in the 7th century AD, the bulk of the population were Arameans, but Syria was also home to Greek and Roman ruling classes, Assyrians still dwelt in the north east, Phoenicians along the coasts, and Jewish and Armenian communities was also extant in major cities, with Nabateans and pre-Islamic Arabs such as the Lakhmids and Ghassanids dwelling in the deserts of southern Syria. Syriac Christianity had taken hold as the major religion, although others still followed Judaism, Mithraism, Manicheanism, Greco-Roman Religion, Canaanite Religion and Mesopotamian Religion. Syria's large and prosperous population made Syria one of the most important of the Roman and Byzantine provinces, particularly during the 2nd and 3rd centuries (AD).[51]

The Roman Emperor Alexander Severus, who was emperor from 222 to 235, was an Aramean from Syria. His cousin Elagabalus, who was emperor from 218 to 222, was also from Syria and his family held hereditary rights to the high priesthood of the Aramean sun god El-Gabal at Emesa (modern Homs) in Syria. Another Roman emperor who was a Syrian was Philip the Arab (Marcus Julius Philippus), emperor from 244 to 249.[51]

Syria is significant in the history of Christianity; Saulus of Tarsus, better known as the Apostle Paul, was converted on the Road to Damascus and emerged as a significant figure in the Christian Church at Antioch in ancient Syria, from which he left on many of his missionary journeys. (Acts 9:1–43)
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MessageSujet: Re: Seleucid Empire, Y'becca et les Origines de la Femme.   Mar 13 Sep à 10:05

Un tout jeune Prince musulman à Lourdes en 1971

Cela ressemble un peu à un épisode d'un conte des Mille et une Nuits : le petit Prince Héritier du Maroc, enfant de 8 ans, est venu à Lourdes à la demande de son père, le Roi du Maroc, prier la Dame mystérieuse et bienfaisante de la Grotte de Massabielle qui s'appelle pour eux aussi Myriam et qui est la Mère de Jésus.

C'était le 14 septembre 1971. Le Prince était accompagné de ses trois sœurs Lalla Meriem, 9 ans, Lalla Asma, 6 ans et Lalla Hasma, 4 ans. Dans sa suite se trouvaient M. Aouad, ministre chargé de l'éducation du Prince, ainsi que la gouvernante et son aide, toutes deux françaises...

Le responsable de la Grotte leur donna quelques brèves explications. Avec la permission du Ministre, et sur le désir du petit Prince et des Princesses, il leur distribua quelques images de la Vierge de Lourdes. C'est à cette occasion que le Ministre lui fit part de l'intention formelle du roi désirant la visite de ses enfants à Lourdes et des prières pour lui, sa famille et son pays.
(Journal de la Grotte, 19.01.75)
Recueil marial 1977
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MessageSujet: Re: Seleucid Empire, Y'becca et les Origines de la Femme.   Mar 13 Sep à 10:05

In 1516, the Ottoman Empire invaded the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt, conquering Syria, and incorporating it into its empire. The Ottoman system was not burdensome to Syrians because the Turks respected Arabic as the language of the Quran, and accepted the mantle of defenders of the faith. Damascus was made the major entrepot for Mecca, and as such it acquired a holy character to Muslims, because of the beneficial results of the countless pilgrims who passed through on the hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca.[60]

Ottoman administration followed a system that led to peaceful coexistence. Each ethno-religious minority – Arab Shia Muslim, Arab Sunni Muslim, Aramean-Syriac Orthodox, Greek Orthodox, Maronite Christians, Assyrian Christians, Armenians, Kurds and Jews – constituted a millet.[61] The religious heads of each community administered all personal status laws and performed certain civil functions as well.[60] In 1831, Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt renounced his loyalty to the Empire and overran Ottoman Syria, capturing Damascus. His short-term rule over the domain attempted to change the demographics and social structure of the region: he brought thousands of Egyptian villagers to populate the plains of Southern Syria, rebuilt Jaffa and settled it with veteran Egyptian soldiers aiming to turn it into a regional capital, and he crushed peasant and Druze rebellions and deported non-loyal tribesmen. By 1840, however, he had to surrender the area back to the Ottomans.

From 1864, Tanzimat reforms were applied on Ottoman Syria, carving out the provinces (vilayets) of Aleppo, Zor, Beirut and Damascus Vilayet; Mutasarrifate of Mount Lebanon was created, as well, and soon after the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem was given a separate status.
Survivors of the Armenian Genocide of 1915

During World War I, the Ottoman Empire entered the conflict on the side of Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It ultimately suffered defeat and loss of control of the entire Near East to the British Empire and French Empire. During the conflict, genocide against indigenous Christian peoples was carried out by the Ottomans and their allies in the form of the Armenian Genocide and Assyrian Genocide, of which Deir ez-Zor, in Ottoman Syria, was the final destination of these death marches.[62] In the midst of World War I, two Allied diplomats (Frenchman François Georges-Picot and Briton Mark Sykes) secretly agreed on the post-war division of the Ottoman Empire into respective zones of influence in the Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916. Initially, the two territories were separated by a border that ran in an almost straight line from Jordan to Iran. However, the discovery of oil in the region of Mosul just before the end of the war led to yet another negotiation with France in 1918 to cede this region to 'Zone B', or the British zone of influence. This border was later recognized internationally when Syria became a League of Nations mandate in 1920[63] and has not changed to date.
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MessageSujet: Re: Seleucid Empire, Y'becca et les Origines de la Femme.   Mar 13 Sep à 10:06

French Mandate and Independent Syrian Republic

In 1920, a short-lived independent Kingdom of Syria was established under Faisal I of the Hashemite family. However, his rule over Syria ended after only a few months, following the Battle of Maysalun. French troops occupied Syria later that year after the San Remo conference proposed that the League of Nations put Syria under a French mandate. General Gouraud had according to his secretary de Caix two options: "Either build a Syrian nation that does not exist... by smoothing the rifts which still divide it" or "cultivate and maintain all the phenomena, which require our abitration that these divisions give". De Caix added "I must say only the second option interests me". This is what Gouraud did.[64][65]
Syrian rebels in Ghouta during the Great Syrian Revolt against French colonial rule in the 1920s

In 1925, Sultan al-Atrash led a revolt that broke out in the Druze Mountain and spread to engulf the whole of Syria and parts of Lebanon. Al-Atrash won several battles against the French, notably the Battle of al-Kafr on 21 July 1925, the Battle of al-Mazraa on 2–3 August 1925, and the battles of Salkhad, al-Musayfirah and Suwayda. France sent thousands of troops from Morocco and Senegal, leading the French to regain many cities, although resistance lasted until the spring of 1927. The French sentenced Sultan al-Atrash to death, but he had escaped with the rebels to Transjordan and was eventually pardoned. He returned to Syria in 1937 after the signing of the Syrian-French Treaty.

Syria and France negotiated a treaty of independence in September 1936, and Hashim al-Atassi was the first president to be elected under the first incarnation of the modern republic of Syria. However, the treaty never came into force because the French Legislature refused to ratify it. With the fall of France in 1940 during World War II, Syria came under the control of Vichy France until the British and Free French occupied the country in the Syria-Lebanon campaign in July 1941. Continuing pressure from Syrian nationalists and the British forced the French to evacuate their troops in April 1946, leaving the country in the hands of a republican government that had been formed during the mandate.[66]
Independent Syrian Republic
Main articles: Syrian Republic (1930–58), United Arab Republic, and 1963 Syrian coup d'état
Aleppo in 1961

Upheaval dominated Syrian politics from independence through the late 1960s. In May 1948, Syrian forces invaded Palestine, together with other Arab states, and immediately attacked Jewish settlements.[67] Their president Shukri al-Quwwatli instructed his troops in the front, “to destroy the Zionists".[68][69] The Invasion purpose was prevention of the establishment of the State of Israel.[70] Defeat in this war was one of several trigger factors for the March 1949 Syrian coup d'état by Col. Husni al-Za'im, described as the first military overthrow of the Arab World[70] since the start of the Second World War. This was soon followed by another overthrow, by Col. Sami al-Hinnawi, who was himself quickly deposed by Col. Adib Shishakli, all within the same year.[70]

Shishakli eventually abolished multipartyism altogether, but was himself overthrown in a 1954 coup and the parliamentary system was restored.[70] However, by this time, power was increasingly concentrated in the military and security establishment.[70] The weakness of Parliamentary institutions and the mismanagement of the economy led to unrest and the influence of Nasserism and other ideologies. There was fertile ground for various Arab nationalist, Syrian nationalist, and socialist movements, which represented disaffected elements of society. Notably included were religious minorities, who demanded radical reform.[70]

In November 1956, as a direct result of the Suez Crisis,[71] Syria signed a pact with the Soviet Union. This gave a foothold for Communist influence within the government in exchange for military equipment.[70] Turkey then became worried about this increase in the strength of Syrian military technology, as it seemed feasible that Syria might attempt to retake İskenderun. Only heated debates in the United Nations lessened the threat of war.[72]

On 1 February 1958, Syrian President Shukri al-Quwatli and Egypt's Nasser announced the merging of Egypt and Syria, creating the United Arab Republic, and all Syrian political parties, as well as the communists therein, ceased overt activities.[66] Meanwhile, a group of Syrian Ba'athist officers, alarmed by the party's poor position and the increasing fragility of the union, decided to form a secret Military Committee; its initial members were Lieutenant-Colonel Muhammad Umran, Major Salah Jadid and Captain Hafez al-Assad. Syria seceded from the union with Egypt on 28 September 1961, after a coup.
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MessageSujet: Re: Seleucid Empire, Y'becca et les Origines de la Femme.   Mar 13 Sep à 10:06

Baptisé par un commissaire païen

J'ai passé plusieurs mois dans une prison communiste, sans avoir été accusé de quoi que ce soit. Le chef de police inspectait la prison ; il entra dans ma cellule et m'adressa les questions habituelles sur mon instruction et évolution communiste. Puis il ajouta :

J’ai quelque chose à te dire, écoute... Hier, en faisant l'inspection des familles de mon quartier, je suis tombé sur une mère de famille en pleurs devant son bébé de deux ans qui se mourait. Je lui dis : "Va me chercher un peu d'eau, je veux guérir ton enfant." Méfiante, elle ne me quitte pas de l'œil et revient avec une tasse d'eau. J'en verse sur la tête du bébé en disant : "Je te baptise au nom du Père et du Fils et du Saint-Esprit."

Pourquoi as-tu fait cela ? lui demandai-je, surpris. - J'ai appris à le faire au collège, et moi, païen, cela m'a toujours frappé, je veux dire la facilité que nous avons d'envoyer des petits enfants au ciel, des petits enfants à qui ne veut pas sourire la terre.

- L'as-tu fait souvent ? - Deux fois seulement. - Comment se fait-il que tu sois communiste ? - Si l'on veut vivre et faire vivre sa famille, force est d'être avec ceux qui sont les maîtres, mais je déteste leur manière de penser, de juger, d'enseigner, d'agir. Garde cela pour toi. - Je te le garantis. Je prierai pour toi et que Marie te protège...
Frère Louis-Claudius, Mariste
Missionnaire en Chine pendant 46 ans
Directeur de collège et animateur de la Légion de Marie
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MessageSujet: Re: Seleucid Empire, Y'becca et les Origines de la Femme.   Mar 13 Sep à 10:06

Ba'athist Syria and Politics and government.

The ensuing instability, following the 1961 coup culminated in the 8 March 1963 Ba'athist coup. The takeover was engineered by members of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party, led by Michel Aflaq and Salah al-Din al-Bitar. The new Syrian cabinet was dominated by Ba'ath members.[66][70]

On 23 February 1966, the Military Committee carried out an intra-party overthrow, imprisoned President Amin Hafiz and designated a regionalist, civilian Ba'ath government on 1 March.[70] Although Nureddin al-Atassi became the formal head of state, Salah Jadid was Syria's effective ruler from 1966 until 1970.[73] The coup led to a split within the original pan-Arab Ba'ath Party: one Iraqi-led ba'ath movement (ruled Iraq from 1968 to 2003) and one Syrian-led ba'ath movement was established.

In the first part of 1967, a low-key state of war existed between Syria and Israel. Conflict over Israeli cultivation of land in the Demilitarized Zone led to 7 April prewar aerial clashes between Israel and Syria.[74] After Israel launched a preemptive strike on Egypt to begin the Six-Day War, Syria joined the war and attacked against Israel as well. In the final days of the war, Israel turned its attention to Syria, capturing two-thirds of the Golan Heights in under 48 hours.[75] The defeat caused a split between Jadid and Assad over what steps to take next.[76]
Quneitra village, largely destroyed before the Israeli withdrawal in June 1974.

Disagreement developed between Jadid, who controlled the party apparatus, and Assad, who controlled the military. The 1970 retreat of Syrian forces sent to aid the PLO during the "Black September" hostilities with Jordan reflected this disagreement.[77] The power struggle culminated in the November 1970 Syrian Corrective Revolution, a bloodless military overthrow that installed Hafez al-Assad as the strongman of the government.[78]

On 6 October 1973, Syria and Egypt initiated the Yom Kippur War against Israel. The Israel Defense Forces reversed the initial Syrian gains and pushed deeper into Syrian territory.[79]

In early 1976, Syria entered Lebanon, beginning the thirty-year Syrian military occupation. Over the following 15 years of civil war, Syria fought for control over Lebanon, and attempted to stop Israel from taking over in southern Lebanon, through extensive use of proxy militias. Syria then remained in Lebanon until 2005.
Dmitry Medvedev arriving in Damascus in May 2010

In the late 1970s, an Islamist uprising by the Muslim Brotherhood was aimed against the government. Islamists attacked civilians and off-duty military personnel, leading security forces to also kill civilians in retaliatory strikes. The uprising had reached its climax in the 1982 Hama massacre,[80] when some 10,000 – 40,000 people were killed by regular Syrian Army troops.

In a major shift in relations with both other Arab states and the Western world, Syria participated in the US-led Gulf War against Saddam Hussein. Syria participated in the multilateral Madrid Conference of 1991, and during the 1990s engaged in negotiations with Israel. These negotiations failed, and there have been no further direct Syrian-Israeli talks since President Hafez al-Assad's meeting with then President Bill Clinton in Geneva in March 2000.[81]
Military situation in the Syrian Civil War as of 5 September 2016.
Controlled by Syrian Government forces
Controlled by Syrian Democratic Forces (Rojava)
Controlled by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
Controlled by al-Nusra Front
Controlled by Syrian opposition forces

(For a more detailed map, see Cities and towns during the Syrian Civil War)

Hafez al-Assad died on 10 June 2000. His son, Bashar al-Assad, was elected President in an election in which he ran unopposed.[66] His election saw the birth of the Damascus Spring and hopes of reform, but by autumn 2001, the authorities had suppressed the movement, imprisoning some of its leading intellectuals.[82] Instead, reforms have been limited to some market reforms.[11][83][84]

On 5 October 2003, Israel bombed a site near Damascus, claiming it was a terrorist training facility for members of Islamic Jihad.[85] In March 2004, Syrian Kurds and Arabs clashed in the northeastern city of al-Qamishli. Signs of rioting were seen in the cities of Qamishli and Hasakeh.[86] In 2005, Syria ended its occupation of Lebanon.[87] On 6 September 2007, foreign jet fighters, suspected as Israeli, reportedly carried out Operation Orchard against a suspected nuclear reactor under construction by North Korean technicians.[88]

Politics and government
Main article: Politics of Syria
See also: Syrian Civil War
The Syrian Parliament in the mid-20th century

Syria is formally a unitary republic. The constitution adopted in 2012 effectively transformed Syria into a semi-presidential republic due to the constitutional right for the election of individuals who do not form part of the National Progressive Front.[104] The President is Head of State and the Prime Minister is Head of Government.[105] The legislature, the Peoples Council, is the body responsible for passing laws, approving government appropriations and debating policy.[106] In the event of a vote of no confidence by a simple majority, the Prime Minister is required to tender the resignation of their government to the President.[107]

The executive branch consists of the president, two vice presidents, the prime minister, and the Council of Ministers (cabinet). The constitution requires the president to be a Muslim[108] but does not make Islam the state religion.

The constitution gives the president the right to appoint ministers, to declare war and state of emergency, to issue laws (which, except in the case of emergency, require ratification by the People's Council), to declare amnesty, to amend the constitution, and to appoint civil servants and military personnel.[109] According to the 2012 constitution, the president is elected by Syrian citizens in a direct election.

Syria's legislative branch is the unicameral People's Council. Under the previous constitution, Syria did not hold multi-party elections for the legislature,[109] with two-thirds of the seats automatically allocated to the ruling coalition.[110] On 7 May 2012, Syria held its first elections in which parties outside the ruling coalition could take part. Seven new political parties took part in the elections, of which Popular Front for Change and Liberation was the largest opposition party. The armed anti-government rebels, however, chose not to field candidates and called on their supporters to boycott the elections.

The President is currently the Regional Secretary of the Ba'ath party in Syria and leader of the National Progressive Front governing coalition. Outside of the coalition are 14 illegal Kurdish political parties.[111]

Syria's judicial branches include the Supreme Constitutional Court, the High Judicial Council, the Court of Cassation, and the State Security Courts. Islamic jurisprudence is a main source of legislation and Syria's judicial system has elements of Ottoman, French, and Islamic laws. Syria has three levels of courts: courts of first instance, courts of appeals, and the constitutional court, the highest tribunal. Religious courts handle questions of personal and family law.[109] The Supreme State Security Court (SSSC) was abolished by President Bashar al-Assad by legislative decree No. 53 on 21 April 2011.[112]

The Personal Status Law 59 of 1953 (amended by Law 34 of 1975) is essentially a codified sharia.[113] Article 3(2) of the 1973 constitution declares Islamic jurisprudence a main source of legislation. The Code of Personal Status is applied to Muslims by sharia courts.[114]

As a result of the ongoing civil war, various alternative governments were formed, including the Syrian Interim Government, the Democratic Union Party and localised regions governed by sharia law. Representatives of the Syrian Interim government were invited to take up Syria's seat at the Arab League on 28 March 2013 and[115] was recognised as the "sole representative of the Syrian people" by several nations including the United States, United Kingdom and France.[116][117][118]

Parliamentary elections were held on 13 April 2016 in the government-controlled areas of Syria, for all 250 seats of Syria's unicameral legislature, the Majlis al-Sha'ab, or the People's Council of Syria.[119] Even before results had been announced, several nations, including Germany, the United States and the United Kingdom, have declared their refusal to accept the results, largely citing it "not representing the will of the Syrian people.[120] However, representatives of the Russian Federation have voiced their support of this election's results.
Human rights
Main article: Human rights in Syria
Wounded civilians arrive at a hospital in Aleppo, October 2012

The situation for human rights in Syria has long been a significant concern among independent organizations such as Human Rights Watch, who in 2010 referred to the country's record as "among the worst in the world."[121] The US State Department funded Freedom House[122] ranked Syria "Not Free" in its annual Freedom in the World survey.[123]

The authorities are accused of arresting democracy and human rights activists, censoring websites, detaining bloggers, and imposing travel bans. Arbitrary detention, torture, and disappearances are widespread.[124] Although Syria's constitution guarantees gender equality, critics say that personal statutes laws and the penal code discriminate against women and girls. Moreover, it also grants leniency for so-called 'Honour killing'.[124] As of 9 November 2011 during the uprising against President Bashar al-Assad, the United Nations reported that of the over 3500 total deaths, over 250 deaths were children as young as 2 years old, and that boys as young as 11 years old have been gang raped by security services officers.[125][126] People opposing President Assad's rule claim that more than 200, mostly civilians, were massacred and about 300 injured in Hama in shelling by the Government forces on 12 July 2012.[127]

In August 2013 the government was suspected of using chemical weapons against its civilians. US Secretary of State John Kerry said it was "undeniable" that chemical weapons had been used in the country and that President Bashar al-Assad's forces had committed a "moral obscenity" against his own people. "Make no mistake," Kerry said. "President Obama believes there must be accountability for those who would use the world's most heinous weapon against the world's most vulnerable people. Nothing today is more serious, and nothing is receiving more serious scrutiny".[128]

The Emergency Law, effectively suspending most constitutional protections, was in effect from 1963 until 21 April 2011.[112] It was justified by the government in the light of the continuing war with Israel over the Golan Heights.

In August 2014, UN Human Rights chief Navi Pillay criticized the international community over its "paralysis" in dealing with the more than 3-year-old civil war gripping the country, which by April 30, 2014, had resulted in 191,369 deaths with war crimes, according to Pillay, being committed with total impunity on all sides in the conflict. Minority Alawites and Christians are being increasingly targeted by Islamists and other groups fighting in the Syrian civil war.[129][130]
Main article: Military of Syria
Syrian soldier wearing a Soviet-made Model ShMS nuclear-biological-chemical warfare mask aiming a Chinese Type-56 automatic assault rifle

The President of Syria is commander in chief of the Syrian armed forces, comprising some 400,000 troops upon mobilization. The military is a conscripted force; males serve in the military upon reaching the age of 18.[131] The obligatory military service period is being decreased over time, in 2005 from two and a half years to two years, in 2008 to 21 months and in 2011 to year and a half.[132] About 20,000 Syrian soldiers were deployed in Lebanon until 27 April 2005, when the last of Syria's troops left the country after three decades.[131]

The breakup of the Soviet Union—long the principal source of training, material, and credit for the Syrian forces—may have slowed Syria's ability to acquire modern military equipment. It has an arsenal of surface-to-surface missiles. In the early 1990s, Scud-C missiles with a 500-kilometer range were procured from North Korea, and Scud-D, with a range of up to 700 kilometers, is allegedly being developed by Syria with the help of North Korea and Iran, according to Zisser.[133]

Syria received significant financial aid from Arab states of the Persian Gulf as a result of its participation in the Persian Gulf War, with a sizable portion of these funds earmarked for military spending.
Foreign relations
Main article: Foreign relations of Syria
Diplomatic missions of Syria

Ensuring national security, increasing influence among its Arab neighbors, and securing the return of the Golan Heights, have been the primary goals of Syria's foreign policy. At many points in its history, Syria has seen virulent tension with its geographically cultural neighbors, such as Turkey, Israel, Iraq, and Lebanon. Syria enjoyed an improvement in relations with several of the states in its region in the 21st century, prior to the Arab Spring and the Syrian Civil War.

Since the ongoing civil war of 2011, and associated killings and human rights abuses, Syria has been increasingly isolated from the countries in the region, and the wider international community. Diplomatic relations have been severed with several countries including: Britain, Canada, France, Italy, Germany, Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, the United States, Belgium, Spain, and the Arab states of the Persian Gulf.[134]
Map of world and Syria (red) with military involvement.
Countries that support the Syrian government
Countries that support the Syrian rebels

From the Arab league, Syria continues to maintain diplomatic relations with Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Sudan and Yemen. Syria's violence against civilians has also seen it suspended from the Arab League and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation in 2012. Syria continues to foster good relations with its traditional allies, Iran and Russia, who are among the few countries which have supported the Syrian government in its conflict with the Syrian opposition.

Syria is included in the European Union's European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) which aims at bringing the EU and its neighbours closer.
International disputes

In 1939, while Syria was still a French mandate the French ceded the Sanjak of Alexandretta to Turkey as part of a treaty of friendship in World War II. In order to facilitate this, a faulty election was done in which ethnic Turks who were originally from the Sanjak but lived in Adana and other areas near the border in Turkey came to vote in the elections, shifting the election in favor of secession. Through this, the Hatay Province of Turkey was formed. The move by the French was very controversial in Syria, and only 5 years later Syria became independent.[135]

Israel unilaterally annexed the Golan Heights in 1981, although the Syrian government continues to demand the return of this territory.

The Syrian occupation of Lebanon began in 1976 as a result of the civil war and ended in April 2006 in response to domestic and international pressure after the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister, Rafik Hariri.
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MessageSujet: Re: Seleucid Empire, Y'becca et les Origines de la Femme.   Mar 13 Sep à 10:07

Louis (1823-1894) et Zélie (1831-1877) Martin, parents de sainte Thérèse de l’Enfant-Jésus, n’ont élevé leurs filles que « pour le ciel ». Pendant leur vie, ils désiraient déjà devenir des saints, comme Zélie l’écrit dans une de ses lettres : « Je veux devenir une sainte, ce ne sera pas facile, il y a bien à bûcher et le bois est dur comme une pierre. Il eût mieux fallu m’y prendre plus tôt, pendant que c’était moins difficile, mais enfin mieux vaut tard que jamais. »
Père Jean-Marie Simar Recteur du sanctuaire Louis et Zélie d’Alençon et membre de la communauté missionnaire « Famille de Marie »
Père Jean-Marie SimarRecteur du sanctuaire Louis et Zélie d’Alençon et membre de la communauté missionnaire « Famille de Marie »
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Marie-Zélie Guérin a grandi en Normandie. C’est la fille d’un gendarme. La vie religieuse l’attire ; elle aimerait se dévouer au service des malades et des pauvres. Or, quand elle demande son admission chez les Filles de la Charité d’Alençon, la supérieure lui rétorque sans l’ombre d’un doute que ce ne sont pas les desseins de Dieu. La jeune fille présente alors la requête suivante au Bon Dieu : « J’entrerai dans l’état du mariage pour accomplir votre Volonté sainte. Alors je vous en prie, donnez-moi beaucoup d’enfants et qu’ils vous soient tous consacrés. »

Zélie qui est très jolie et talentueuse apprend à confectionner les fameuses dentelles d’Alençon (Orne). Elle n’a que 22 ans quand elle ouvre sa propre boutique et livre ses ouvrages jusqu’à Paris pour répondre à la demande. Quatre ans plus tard, elle croise sur un pont un jeune homme dont la noblesse des traits la frappe.

Zélie perçoit intérieurement une voix : « C’est celui-là que j’ai préparé pour toi. » Cet étranger est horloger, né à Bordeaux, fils d’un officier profondément croyant ; il a 35 ans, aime la nature et la littérature. À l’âge de 22 ans, son amour extraordinaire pour Dieu l’avait amené lui aussi à pousser la porte d’un monastère - et ce n’est qu’en raison de ses carences en latin qu’il n’avait pas été admis chez les chanoines de saint Augustin au Grand-Saint-Bernard. Il s’appelle Louis-Joseph Martin. Depuis huit ans il mène une vie presque monacale dans son magasin d’horlogerie et de bijouterie à Alençon. Il est tellement comblé par sa vie intérieure qu’il n’a jamais pensé à se marier jusqu’à ce qu’intervienne la Providence. Louis et Zélie font connaissance. Trois mois plus tard leurs dispositions de cœur sont telles qu’ils peuvent échanger devant Dieu leur consentement, ce qui a lieu le 13 juillet 1858 en l’église Notre-Dame d’Alençon.

S’unir de plus en plus profondément à la volonté de Dieu

Bien que tous deux aient toujours aspiré à la vie religieuse, ils parviennent avec l’aide de leur confesseur à une profonde compréhension du mariage chrétien. Ils peuvent désormais exprimer leur abandon à Dieu en lui donnant des enfants. En dix ans, Zélie a la joie d’avoir huit grossesses. Cependant, elle a aussi la douleur de voir quatre de « ses petits anges » mourir dans ses bras. C’est l’occasion pour elle de s’unir de plus en plus profondément à la volonté de Dieu, de tout recevoir sans douter le moins du monde de sa bonté et sans rien désirer d’autre que de conduire à Dieu ses enfants chéris. Au décès d’Hélène, âgée de 5 ans, la maman écrit dans une lettre : « Quand Louis est rentré et qu’il a vu sa pauvre petite fille morte, il s’est mis à sangloter en s’écriant : « Ma petite Hélène, ma petite Hélène ! » Puis nous l’avons offerte ensemble au Bon Dieu. »

Dans toutes ses épreuves, Zélie reçoit l’appui de son mari en voyant sa fermeté d’âme et ses dispositions d’ouverture spirituelle. Elle n’en manifeste que plus sa propre grandeur d’âme et son courage. Elle abat le travail de trois personnes et sait relever les défis de la vie quotidienne avec intelligence et calme en y ajoutant une fine pointe d’humour. Louis apporte un solide soutien à son épouse, déjà professionnellement en l’aidant à la confection de dentelles, un métier fatigant. Ils s’entendent tous deux à faire prospérer leur commerce mais n’y voient qu’un moyen pour assurer à leurs filles une bonne formation et une dot. Comme ils ont placé Dieu au centre de leur activité quotidienne, les époux s’emploient à mettre de côté une partie de leurs biens pour assurer un logement aux pauvres et secourir les plus défavorisés.

La vie chez les Martin est régie par les liens d’affection et de parfaite union d’âme des époux. Cela se vérifie dans les lettres qu’ils s’adressent l’un à l’autre : « Je t’embrasse de tout mon cœur, je suis si heureuse aujourd’hui, à la pensée de te revoir que je ne puis travailler. Ta femme qui t’aime plus que sa vie. » « Chère amie, le temps me paraît long, il me tarde d’être auprès de toi. Inutile de te dire que ta lettre m’a fait grand plaisir, sauf d’y voir que tu te fatiguais beaucoup trop. Ton mari et vrai ami, qui t’aime pour la vie. » Ils ont su aussi trouver pour l’éducation de leurs enfants un merveilleux équilibre entre fermeté et tendresse. Leur exemple héroïque est suffisamment éloquent, surtout quand il s’agit d’apprendre à leurs filles à faire plaisir à Jésus en faisant de petits sacrifices dans la vie quotidienne par amour pour lui, en lui offrant des « perles pour sa couronne ».

Dieu a la première place. Louis et Zélie ont l’habitude de commencer leur journée par la sainte messe à 5h30. Les voisins qui entendent la clé tourner dans la serrure de la porte, se disent alors : « Ce sont les saints époux Martin qui se rendent à l’église. Nous avons encore le temps de dormir ! » Le soir, on prie ensemble devant la statue de la Sainte Vierge, on lit des livres pieux, on discute sur les sujets du jour selon le calendrier liturgique, on s’entretient sur les choses spirituelles, tout cela avec bonne humeur. Cet effort intensif de vie chrétienne au sein de la famille n’empêche pourtant pas les parents de se retirer de temps à autre, séparément, dans un couvent, pour y être seul avec Dieu.


Déjà en 1864, se manifestent chez cette jeune maman de 32 ans les premiers symptômes d’une grave maladie qui va l’emporter. Huit ans plus tard, d’un commun accord avec son mari qui n’en reste pas moins inquiet, Zélie se décide pourtant à accueillir un neuvième enfant. Le 2 janvier 1873, Thérèse vient au monde et va bientôt être le rayon de soleil de la famille. À peine quatre ans plus tard tombe le diagnostic qui ébranle tout le monde : c’est un cancer inopérable. La famille est sous le choc. Zélie reçoit la nouvelle avec courage et prend la décision : « Je veux tirer profit de ce temps. » Elle accomplit ses tâches avec une volonté de fer et cherche à garder son entrain malgré les douleurs qui ne font qu’augmenter. Un jour, elle écrit dans une lettre : « Le mieux est de remettre toutes choses entre les mains du Bon Dieu et d’attendre les évènements dans le calme et l’abandon à sa volonté. C’est ce que je vais m’efforcer de faire. » Par amour pour ses proches, elle espère avec retenue pouvoir guérir : « Si le Bon Dieu veut me guérir, je serai très contente, car au fond, je désire vivre ; il m’en coûte de quitter mon mari et mes enfants. Mais d’autre part, je me dis : si je ne guéris pas, c’est qu’il leur sera peut-être plus utile que je m’en aille. »

Elle se prépare quand même aux adieux et prête à tout, elle pense avec dévouement à la troisième de ses filles, Léonie, qui a un caractère difficile : « S’il ne fallait que le sacrifice de ma vie pour que Léonie devienne une sainte, je le ferais de bon cœur. » Dans la nuit du 28 août 1877, après être passée par de grandes souffrances, Zélie rend l’âme, doucement, à Alençon, aux côtés de son cher Louis. Le lendemain, Louis devenu veuf à l’âge de 54 ans, amène sa petite Thérèse de quatre ans au chevet de la dépouille de sa maman. Voici la relation qu’elle en fait plus tard : « Il me prit dans ses bras en me disant : « Viens embrasser une dernière fois ta pauvre petite Mère. » Et moi, sans rien dire, j’approchais mes lèvres du front de ma mère chérie. »


Pour Louis, après 19 ans de bonheur conjugal, un monde s’écroule. Il déménage à Lisieux et se consacre entièrement à l’éducation de ses filles, secondé par l’aînée, Marie qui a déjà 17 ans. Dans les années qui suivent, c’est lui qui a le privilège de voir les merveilleux fruits spirituels issus de sa vie avec Zélie, à savoir les vocations religieuses de leurs filles les unes après les autres. Marie et Pauline entrent au Carmel de Lisieux. Il est surtout durement marqué par le départ de sa « petite reine » qui n’a que 15 ans : « Dieu seul peut exiger un tel sacrifice... ne me plaignez pas, car mon cœur surabonde de joie. » Même Léonie entre à la Visitation. Quand sa cinquième fille, Céline, lui fait part elle aussi de son désir de devenir carmélite, il s’exclame : « Allons ensemble devant le Saint Sacrement remercier le Seigneur des grâces qu’il accorde à notre famille… Oui le Bon Dieu me fait un grand honneur en me demandant tous mes enfants. Si je possédais quelque chose de mieux, je m’empresserais de le lui offrir. »

Avant que Céline ne réalise son vœu, elle soigne son père jusqu’à ses derniers jours. Après plusieurs attaques cérébrales consécutives, Louis commence à souffrir une vraie passion. Son mental ne fait que s’obscurcir et il tombe de plus en plus souvent dans des états imprévisibles de confusion, voire de folie. On est contraint d’interner le patient dans un asile psychiatrique pendant trois ans. Ses filles en sont comme anéanties mais comprennent que ces tourments qu’elles endurent ensemble « sont de nature à nous rendre des saintes ». Louis lui-même avait un jour exprimé son point de vue à propos de ce type de maladie. « Un destin aussi avilissant, disait-il, c’est la plus grande épreuve qu’un homme puisse subir ! » Il passe à présent par des phases de lucidité intérieure qui lui donnent la possibilité de « goûter » à « l’amertume et l’humiliation de ce calice » comme l’appelle Thérèse, et à s’offrir en toute liberté à Dieu. Il confie à ses filles que pour toutes les grâces et les bienfaits reçus, il avait fait un jour la prière suivante : « Mon Dieu, c’en est trop ! Oui, je suis trop heureux, il n’est pas possible d’aller au ciel comme cela, je veux souffrir quelque chose pour vous ! Et je me suis offert... » Thérèse évoqua dans ses souvenirs : « Le mot « victime » expira sur ses lèvres, il n’osa pas le prononcer devant nous mais nous avions compris. »

Le premier couple canonisé non martyr

Louis passe encore deux années en fauteuil roulant avant de rejoindre son épouse Zélie au ciel le 29 juillet 1894 à Lisieux, à l’âge de 71 ans. Il n’a pas eu parmi ses enfants le prêtre et missionnaire qu’il désirait mais il a donné à l’Église Thérèse de l’Enfant-Jésus, patronne des missions et Docteur de l’Église. Du Carmel, les filles de Louis lui rendirent cet hommage : « Ô toi le meilleur des pères, qui donnes à Dieu sans compter tout l’espoir de ta vieillesse… Nous te glorifierons comme tu mérites d’être glorifié, en devenant des saintes ! »

Louis et Zélie Martin constituent le premier couple canonisé non martyr. Béatifiés le 19 octobre 2008 à Lisieux, ils ont été canonisés à Rome le 18 octobre 2015, à l’occasion du synode des évêques sur la mission de la famille dans l’Église et dans le monde. L’église Notre-Dame d’Alençon où ils se sont mariés a été élevée au rang de basilique le 6 décembre 2009.
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MessageSujet: Re: Seleucid Empire, Y'becca et les Origines de la Femme.   Mar 13 Sep à 10:07

Syrian Civil War
Main article: Syrian Civil War

The ongoing Syrian Civil War was inspired by the Arab Spring revolutions. It began in 2011 as a chain of peaceful protests, followed by a crackdown by the Syrian Army.[89] In July 2011, army defectors declared the formation of the Free Syrian Army and began forming fighting units. The opposition is dominated by Sunni Muslims, whereas the leading government figures are Alawites.[90] According to various sources, including the United Nations, up to 100,000 people had been killed by June 2013,[91][92][93] including 11,000 children.[94] To escape the violence, over 2.1 million Syrian refugees have fled to neighboring countries of Jordan,[95] Iraq,[96] Lebanon, and Turkey.[97][98] An estimated 450,000 Syrian Christians have fled their homes.[99] As the civil war has dragged on, there have been worries that the country could become fragmented and cease to function as a state.[100]

As of 2015, the Syrian economy relies upon inherently unreliable revenue sources such as dwindling customs and income taxes which are heavily bolstered by lines of credit from Iran.[140] Iran is believed to spend between $6 billion and $20 billion USD a year on Syria during the Syrian Civil War.[141] The Syrian economy has contracted 60% and the Syrian pound has lost 80% of its value, with the economy becoming part state-owned and part war economy.[142] At the outset of the ongoing Syrian Civil War, Syria was classified by the World Bank as a "lower middle income country."[143] In 2010, Syria remained dependent on the oil and agriculture sectors.[144] The oil sector provided about 40% of export earnings.[144] Proven offshore expeditions have indicated that large sums of oil exist on the Mediterranean Sea floor between Syria and Cyprus.[145] The agriculture sector contributes to about 20% of GDP and 20% of employment. Oil reserves are expected to decrease in the coming years and Syria has already become a net oil importer.[144] Since the civil war began, the economy shrank by 35%, and the Syrian pound has fallen to one-sixth of its prewar value.[146] The government increasingly relies on credit from Iran, Russia and China.[146]

The economy is highly regulated by the government, which has increased subsidies and tightened trade controls to assuage protesters and protect foreign currency reserves.[147] Long-run economic constraints include foreign trade barriers, declining oil production, high unemployment, rising budget deficits, and increasing pressure on water supplies caused by heavy use in agriculture, rapid population growth, industrial expansion, and water pollution.[147] The UNDP announced in 2005 that 30% of the Syrian population lives in poverty and 11.4% live below the subsistence level.[66]

Syria's share in global exports has eroded gradually since 2001.[148] The real per capita GDP growth was just 2.5% per year in the 2000–2008 period.[148] Unemployment is high at above 10%. Poverty rates have increased from 11% in 2004 to 12.3% in 2007.[148] In 2007, Syria's main exports include crude oil, refined products, raw cotton, clothing, fruits, and grains. The bulk of Syrian imports are raw materials essential for industry, vehicles, agricultural equipment, and heavy machinery. Earnings from oil exports as well as remittances from Syrian workers are the government's most important sources of foreign exchange.[66]
Al-Hamidiyah Souq in Damascus in 2010

Political instability poses a significant threat to future economic development.[149] Foreign investment is constrained by violence, government restrictions, economic sanctions, and international isolation. Syria's economy also remains hobbled by state bureaucracy, falling oil production, rising budget deficits, and inflation.[149]

Prior to the civil war in 2011, the government hoped to attract new investment in the tourism, natural gas, and service sectors to diversify its economy and reduce its dependence on oil and agriculture. The government began to institute economic reforms aimed at liberalizing most markets, but those reforms were slow and ad hoc, and have been completely reversed since the outbreak of conflict in 2011.[150]

As of 2012, because of the ongoing Syrian civil war, the value of Syria's overall exports has been slashed by two-thirds, from the figure of US$12 billion in 2010 to only US$4 billion in 2012.[151] Syria's GDP declined by over 3% in 2011,[152] and is expected to further decline by 20% in 2012.[153]

As of 2012, Syria's oil and tourism industries in particular have been devastated, with US$5 billion lost to the ongoing conflict of the civil war.[151] Reconstruction needed because of the ongoing civil war will cost as much as US$10 billion.[151] Sanctions have sapped the government's finance. US and European Union bans on oil imports, which went into effect in 2012, are estimated to cost Syria about $400 million a month.[154]

Revenues from tourism have dropped dramatically, with hotel occupancy rates falling from 90% before the war to less than 15% in May 2012.[155] Around 40% of all employees in the tourism sector have lost their jobs since the beginning of the war.[155]

In May 2015, ISIS captured Syria's phosphate mines, one of the Assad regime's last chief sources of income.[156] The following month, ISIS blew up a gas pipeline to Damascus that was used to generate heating and electricity in Damascus and Homs; "the name of its game for now is denial of key resources to the regime" an analyst stated.[157] In addition, ISIS is closing in on Shaer gas field and three other facilities in the area—Hayan, Jihar and Ebla—with the loss of these western gas fields having the potential to cause Iran to further subsidize the Assad regime.[158]
Petroleum industry
Oil refinery in Homs

Syria's petroleum industry has been subject to sharp decline. In September 2014, ISIS was producing more oil than the regime at 80,000 bbl/d (13,000 m3/d) compared to the regime's 17,000 bbl/d (2,700 m3/d) with the Syrian Oil Ministry stating that by the end of 2014, oil production had plunged further to 9,329 bbl/d (1,483.2 m3/d); ISIS has since captured a further oil field, leading to a projected oil production of 6,829 bbl/d (1,085.7 m3/d).[140] In the third year of the Syrian Civil War, the deputy economy minister Salman Hayan stated that Syria's two main oil refineries were operating at less than 10% capacity.[159]

Historically, the country produced heavy-grade oil from fields located in the northeast since the late 1960s. In the early 1980s, light-grade, low-sulphur oil was discovered near Deir ez-Zor in eastern Syria. Syria's rate of oil production has decreased dramatically from a peak close to 600,000 barrels per day (95,000 m3/d) (bpd) in 1995 down to less than 140,000 bbl/d (22,000 m3/d) in 2012.[160] Prior to the uprising, more than 90% of Syrian oil exports were to EU countries, with the remainder going to Turkey.[155] Oil and gas revenues constituted around 20% of total GDP and 25% of total government revenue.[155]
Expressway M5 Near Al-Rastan
Main article: Transport in Syria

Syria has four international airports (Damascus, Aleppo, Lattakia and Kamishly), which serve as hubs for Syrian Air and are also served by a variety of foreign carriers.

The majority of Syrian cargo is carried by Chemins de Fer Syriens (the Syrian railway company), which links up with Turkish State Railways (the Turkish counterpart). For a relatively underdeveloped country, Syria's railway infrastructure is well maintained with many express services and modern trains.[161]

The road network in Syria is 69,873 km long, including 1,103 km of expressways. The country also has 900 km of navigable but not economically significant waterways.[162]
Water supply and sanitation
Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Syria

Syria is a semiarid country with scarce water resources. The largest water consuming sector in Syria is agriculture. Domestic water use stands at only about 9% of total water use.[163] A big challenge for Syria is its high population growth with a rapidly increasing demand for urban and industrial water. In 2006 the population of Syria was 19.4 million with a growth rate of 2.7%.[164]
Main article: Demographics of Syria
Historical populations (in thousands)
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1960 4,565 —
1970 6,305 +3.28%
1981 9,046 +3.34%
1994 13,782 +3.29%
2004 17,921 +2.66%
2014 17,952 +0.02%
Source: Central Bureau of Statistics of the Syrian Arab Republic, 2011[165]

Most people live in the Euphrates River valley and along the coastal plain, a fertile strip between the coastal mountains and the desert. Overall population density in Syria is about 99 per square kilometre (258 per square mile). According to the World Refugee Survey 2008, published by the U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, Syria hosted a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately 1,852,300. The vast majority of this population was from Iraq (1,300,000), but sizeable populations from Palestine (543,400) and Somalia (5,200) also lived in the country.[166]

In what the UN has described as "the biggest humanitarian emergency of our era",[167] about 9.5 million Syrians, half the population, have been displaced since the outbreak of the Syrian Civil War in March 2011;[168] 4 million are outside the country as refugees.[169]
Ethnic groups
Main article: Syrian people
Children in Aleppo
Damascus, traditional clothing

Syrians are an overall indigenous Levantine people, closely related to their immediate neighbours, like Lebanese people, Palestinians, Iraqis, Maltese and Jordanians.[170][171] Syria has a population of approximately 17,065,000 (2014 est.)[3] Syrian Arabs, together with some 600,000 Palestinian Arabs, make up roughly 74% of the population (if Syriac Christians are excluded).[147]

The indigenous Christian Western Aramaic-speakers and Assyrians are numbered around 400,000 people,[172] with the Western Aramaic-speakers living all over the country, particularly in major urban centers, while the Assyrians mainly reside in the north and northeast (Homs, Aleppo, Qamishli, Hasakah). Many (particularly the Assyrian group) still retain several Neo-Aramaic dialects as spoken and written languages, while villagers of Ma'loula, Jubb'adin and Bakh'a still retain Western Aramaic.[173]

The second largest ethnic group in Syria are the Kurds. They constitute about 9% of the population, or approximately 1.6 million people.[174] Most Kurds reside in the northeastern corner of Syria and most speak the Kurmanji variant of the Kurdish language.
The ethno-religious composition of Syria.

Syria is also a home to several other ethnic groups mainly the Turkmens (number around 100,000),[175] Circassians (number some 100,000),[176] Greeks,[177] and Armenians (number approximately 100,000), most arrived during the Armenian Genocide. Syria holds the 7th largest Armenian population in the world. They are mainly gathered in Aleppo, Qamishli, Damascus and Kesab.

Syria was once home to a substantial population of Jews, with large communities in Damascus, Aleppo, and Qamishii. Due to a combination of persecution in Syria and opportunities elsewhere, the Jews began to emigrate in the second half of the 19th century to Great Britain, the United States, and Israel. The process was completed with the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948. Today only a few Jews remain in Syria.

The largest concentration of the Syrian diaspora outside the Arab world is in Brazil, which has millions of people of Arab and other Near Eastern ancestries.[178] Brazil is the first country in the Americas to offer humanitarian visas to Syrian refugees.[179] The majority of Arab Argentines are from either Lebanese or Syrian background.[180]
Main articles: Religion in Syria and Islam in Syria

Circle frame.svg

Religion in Syria (est. 2006)[181]
Islam (87%)
Christianity (10%)
Druzism (3%)
Great Mosque of Aleppo, Aleppo

Sunni Muslims make up about 74% of Syria's population and Sunni Arabs account for 59–60% of the population, most Kurds (9%) and Turkomen (3%) are Sunni, while 13% are Shia (Alawite, Twelvers, and Ismailis combined),[181] 10% Christian[181] (the majority Antiochian Orthodox, the rest including Greek Catholic, Assyrian Church of the East, Armenian Orthodox, Protestants and other denominations), and 3% Druze.[181] Druze number around 500,000, and concentrate mainly in the southern area of Jabal al-Druze.[182]

President Bashar al-Assad's family is Alawite and Alawites dominate the government of Syria and hold key military positions.[183] In May 2013, SOHR stated that out of 94,000 killed during the Syrian Civil War, at least 41,000 were Alawites.[184]

Christians (2.5 million), a sizable number of whom are found among Syria's population of Palestinian refugees, are divided into several groups. Chalcedonian Antiochian Orthodox make up 45.7% of the Christian population; the Catholics (Melkite, Armenian Catholic, Syriac Catholic, Maronite, Chaldean Catholic and Latin) make up 16.2%; the Armenian Apostolic Church 10.9%, the Syriac Orthodox make up 22.4%; Assyrian Church of the East and several smaller Christian denominations account for the remainder. Many Christian monasteries also exist. Many Christian Syrians belong to a high socio-economic class.[185]
Main article: Languages of Syria

Arabic is the official language. Several modern Arabic dialects are used in everyday life, most notably Levantine in the west and Mesopotamian in the northeast. Kurdish (in its Kurmanji form) is widely spoken in the Kurdish regions of Syria. Armenian and Turkish (South Azeri dialect) are spoken among the Armenian and Turkmen minorities.

Aramaic was the lingua franca of the region before the advent of Arabic, and is still spoken among Assyrians, and Classical Syriac is still used as the liturgical language of various Syriac Christian denominations. Most remarkably, Western Neo-Aramaic is still spoken in the village of Ma'loula as well as two neighboring villages, 56 km (35 mi) northeast of Damascus.

English and French are widely spoken as a second language, but English is more often used.
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MessageSujet: Re: Seleucid Empire, Y'becca et les Origines de la Femme.   Mar 13 Sep à 10:08

« Tu ne nuiras point au peuple d'Orchomène ! »

A la suite des revers subis par les armées italiennes en Albanie, Hitler décida d'envahir la Grèce. Voici à ce propos un extrait de la revue Historia de janvier 1967 :

Une colonne de chars d'assaut arriva devant le village d'Orchomène, à 120 km d'Athènes, au matin du 10 septembre 1943. La population était dans la terreur, car un village voisin avait été complètement détruit la veille. C'est alors que se produit un miracle. La Vierge apparaît, éblouissante de lumière, retenant le colonel allemand qui dirige la colonne de chars et ordonne : "Tu ne nuiras point au peuple d'Orchomène !"

Le village est épargné et la colonne continue sa route sans aucune violence. L'officier allemand devait un peu plus tard offrir à l'église d'Orchomène un tableau représentant sa vision et que la revue Historia reproduit.

Nos frères d'Athènes (maristes) sont allés sur place vérifier les faits. Ils ont pu causer avec nombre de paysans, et tout concorde. Une messe pontificale est ainsi célébrée dans cette église, une des plus anciennes du monde puisque c'est un ancien temple païen, et, dit Historia, la plus ancienne consacrée à la Vierge Marie. Elle est dédiée à la Dormition de la Vierge.
J-P. Osmont
Dans Présence Invisible
Recueil marial 1984
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MessageSujet: Re: Seleucid Empire, Y'becca et les Origines de la Femme.   Mar 13 Sep à 10:08

Toulouse, le 13 Septembre 2016

"Lettre vers tous les Croyants, les Laics, les Athées et Indiférents sans distinction de sexes et d'appartenance"

"A travers l'histoire, il y a tout ces regards qui porte sur l'espérance d'une terre bénite où résonne la paix et l'harmonie si désireuse dans le cœur de l'Homme. Certains ont construit et d'autres ont détruit... Les Femmes n'eurent pas dans un premier temps à se soucier de leur image, telle des lionnes, elles étaient libre de se soumettre ou de se dérober à l'acte naturel de la Nature et de ses lois. Mais voilà; nous avons voulu une femme unique dans sa présentation et son comportement: La diversité lui fut enlevé et l'Homme perdit son statut d'être suprême de Dieu. Les Hyènes, les lions et les Éléphants devint les inspirateurs de l'évolution humaine, plus nous apprenons à observer ce qui reste de sauvage dans la nature, nous voyions que nous avons voulu supprimer ces codes d'honneurs... Ce qui était preuve de charité fut transformé en faiblesse ! Le lion qui élevait les fils de ses frères, ce lion là fut tué par les Hommes et ceux qui prirent sa défense furent exilés du cœur des femmes... On les transforma pour les soustraire à leurs regards... Trouvé vous cela juste mesdames d'être puni pour un acte de bonté à l'égard de ce lion qui adopta les orphelins de ces crimes et qui honoré les dettes des Dames Lionnes à l'égard de Yahvé, Dieu, Allah, Vishnou ou Éternel est l’Éternel. Oui malgré mon sens laïque, je crois au courage de la Charité et de la Valeur malgré tout j'ai perdu ma naïveté devant le Lâche, le Traitre, l’Envieux et la Haine. J'aime le regard tel le lion qui protège son territoire, Sa Lionne et Son Peuple et qui n'ose pas cacher son admiration devant les singes et les éléphants imprégné de sagesse et de Bonté... Le Courage de la Girafe, la Hargne de la Hyène, l'endurance du Serpent, la moquerie du Scorpion et les enseignements de la Mouche. Les Mouches indiquent l'eau et sont des reversoirs aussi utile que le Chameau et le Cheval... Les hirondelles qui faisait sourire les Femmes et les Enfants; Et malgré la Cruauté du Temps, il y avait toujours une place pour la valeur du Courage et du charitable... Voilà à partir de quoi et selon les percepts de Gordon Pacha et l’Enseignement de l’Écoute du Temps et de La Nature nous pouvons reconstruire Alep, Petra et tous ces Oasis qui faisait les charmes de nos querelles de Commerçants, de Patriarches et de Familles. Nous ne pourrons jamais éviter des querelles ou des discordes de Voisinages, mais Sauvegarder Notre Honneur, ça sera mon premier engagement d'Homme contre l'Esclavage, le Viol, la Torture, La Faim, La soif et pour l'équilibre, le partage, la manifestation, l'égalité, de réunion et de gréve."

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